Racial Violence in the United States, 1863 to Present


Mass Racial Violence

Table I. Incidents of Mass Racial Violence

Sources:

1) Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877. Eric Foner. Harper & Row. 1988.

2) Redemption: The Last Battle of the Civil War. Nicholas Lemann. Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux. 2006.

3) A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America. Ronald Takaki. Little, Brown and Company. 1993.

4) One Drop of Blood: The American Misadventure of Race. Scott L. Malcolmson. Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux. 2000.

5) Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. Dee Brown. Holt, Rinehart & Winston. 1970.

6) American Negro Slave Revolts. Herbert Aptheker. International Publishers. 1993.

7) Before the Mayflower: A History of the Negro in America, 1619-1964. Lerone Bennett, Jr. Penguin Books. 1966.

8) Labor Struggles in the Deep South. Covington Hall. Edited by David R. Roediger. Charles H. Kerr. 1999.

9) The Origins of the Urban Crisis. Thomas J. Sugrue. Princeton University Press. 1996.

10) Sweet Land of Liberty: The Forgotten Struggle for Civil Rights in the North. Thomas J. Sugrue. Random House. 2008.

11) Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders. Bantam Books. 1968.

12) "The 1873 Battle of Colfax: Paramilitarism and Counterrevolution- in Louisiana". James K. Hogue. Unpublished paper. 2006.

13) "The 1868 St. Landry Massacre: Reconstruction's Deadliest Episode of Violence". Matthew Christensen. Unpublished thesis. 2012.

14) "Rosewood, Florida: The Destruction of an African-American Community". R. Thomas Dye. The Historian : A Journal of History, Spring 1996, Volume 58, Number 3, 605-622.

15) "Guilty Until Proven Innocent". Paul McDowell. Unpublished paper. 2009.

16) Tulsa Race Riot: A Report by the Oklahoma Commission to Study the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921. 2001.

17) The State of Jones: The Small Southern County that Seceded from the Confederacy. Sally Jenkins and John Stauffer. Doubleday. 2009.

18) The Other South: Southern Dissenters in the Nineteenth Century. Carl N. Degler. Northeastern University Press. 1982.

19) Race, Reform and Rebellion: The Second Reconstruction in Black America, 1945-1982. Manning Marable. University Press of Mississippi. 1984.

20) An American Insurrection: The Battle of Oxford, Mississippi, 1962. William Doyle. Doubleday, 2001.

21) Buried in the Bitter Waters: The Hidden History of Racial Cleansing in America. Elliot Jaspin. Basic Books, 2007.

22) "'Who Dares to Style this Female a Woman?': Lynching, Gender, and Culture in the Nineteenth-Century U.S. West" by Helen McLure in Lynching Beyond Dixie: American Mob Violence Outside the South. Edited by Michael J. Pfeifer. University of Illinois Press. 2013.

23) "'Light is Bursting Upon the World!': White Supremacy and Racist Violence against Blacks in Reconstruction Kansas" by Brent M.S. Campney in Lynching Beyond Dixie: American Mob Violence Outside the South. Edited by Michael J. Pfeifer. University of Illinois Press. 2013.

24) "The Rise and Fall of Mob Violence Against Mexicans in Arizona, 1859-1915" by William D. Carrigan and Clive Webb in Lynching Beyond Dixie: American Mob Violence Outside the South. Edited by Michael J. Pfeifer. University of Illinois Press. 2013.

25) "Race, Sex, and Riot: The Springfield, Ohio, Race Riots of 1904 and 1906 and the Sources of Antiblack Violence in the Lower Midwest" by Jack S. Blocker Jr. in Lynching Beyond Dixie: American Mob Violence Outside the South. Edited by Michael J. Pfeifer. University of Illinois Press. 2013.

26) "Lynching in Late-Nineteenth-Century Michigan" by Michael J. Pfeifer in Lynching Beyond Dixie: American Mob Violence Outside the South. Edited by Michael J. Pfeifer. University of Illinois Press. 2013.

27) The Hangman's Knot: Lynching, Legal Execution, and America's Struggle with the Death Penalty. Eliza Steelwater. Westview Press. 2003.

28) An Indigenous Peoples' History of the United States. Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz. Beacon Press. 2014.

29) A Festival of Violence: An Analysis of Southern Lynchings, 1882-1930. Stewart E. Tolnay and E.M. Beck. University of Illinois Press. 1995.

30) An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy, Volume II. Gunnar Myrdal. Transaction Publishers. 2009. (Originally 1944.)

31) The Freedmen's Bureau Online: Records of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Landsfreedmensbureau.com. Accessed in 2014-2105.

32) A Social History of Racial Violence. Edited by Allen D. Grimshaw. Transaction Publishers. 2009. (Originally 1969.)

33) "Persecution of Negroes by Roughs and Policemen, in the City of New York, August 1900" by Citizens' Protective League in Police Brutality: An Anthology. Edited by Jill Nelson. W.W. Norton & Co. 2000.

34) "'Slangin' Rocks...Palestinian Style': Dispatches from the Occupied Zones of North America" in Police Brutality: An Anthology. Edited by Jill Nelson. W.W. Norton & Co. 2000.

35) Lynching in America: A History in Documents. Edited by Christopher Waldrep. New York University Press. 2006.

36) The 1910 Slocum Massacre: An Act of Genocide in East Texas. E.R. Bills. The History Press. 2014.

37) Slavery by Another Name: The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans fromthe Civil War to World War II. Douglas A. Blackmon. Doubleday. 2008.

38) The Shadow of Slavery: Peonage in the South, 1901-1969. Pete Daniel. University of Illinois Press. 1972.

39) Black Against Empire: The History and Politics of the Black Panther Party. Joshua Bloom and Waldo E. Martin, Jr. University of California Press. 2013.

40) From Slave Abuse to Hate Crime: The Criminalization of Racial Violence in American History. Ely Aaronson. Cambridge University Press. 2014.

41) The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America's Great Migration. Isabel Wilkerson. Vintage Books. 2010.

42) 100 Years of Lynching. Ralph Ginzburg. Black Classic Press. 1988.

43) Roots of Violence in Black Philadelphia 1860-1900. Roger Lane. Harvard University Press. 1986.

44) Driven Out: The Forgotten War Against Chinese Americans. Jean Pfaelzer. University of California Press. 2008.

45) Encyclopedia of American Race Riots. Edited by Walter Rucker and James Nathaniel Upton. Greenwood Press. 2007.

46) Cultures of Violence: Racial Violence and the Origins of Segregation in South Africa and the American South. Ivan Evans. Manchester University Press. 2009.

47) freedmensbureau.com 2017.

48) Stamped From The Beginning: The Definitive History of Racist Ideas in America. Ibram X. Kendi. Nation Books. 2016.