Racial Violence in the United States, 1863 to Present
Civil Rights and Restorative Justice Project
Racism at American Pools Isn't New: A Look at a Long History
The Reconstruction Era
Freedmen's Bureau Online
Racism in the Reconstruction
The Washington Post. Five Myths About Reconstruction.
vox.com A Short History of White People Rigging
The Lynching Era
Without Sanctuary: Photographs and Postcards of Lynching in America
Lynching in America: Statistics,
Project HAL: Historical American Lynching Data
Ida B. Wells. "Lynch Law in America"
Freewheel Burning: Lynching Data
Dwight Murphey "Lynching: History and Analysis"
Ida B. Wells. A Red Record
Bar Graph of Lynching of African-Americans, 1890-1929
The Negro Holocaust: Lynching and Race Riots
in the United States, 1880-1950
The Lynching of Postmaster Frazier Baker
President Harding Condemns Lynching
Lynching in America
Sundown Towns. James W. Loewen.
The Insular Cases. Slate.
20,000 Nazis in NYC. 1939. The Atlantic.
New Obituary for Ida B. Wells. The New York Times.
Ida B. Wells 1909 Speech on Lynching. The Guardian.
How White Americans Used Lynchings to Terrorize and Control Black People. The Guardian.
The Civil Rights Era
Civil Rights Movement Veterans.
FBI.gov. Civil Rights Era Murders.
FBI.gov. Search for Civil Rights' Victims' Next of Kin.
Southern Poverty Law Center. Civil Rights Martyrs.
Southern Poverty Law Center. The Forgotten.
Chemical-Weapons Testing by Race in World War II.
The Isaac Woodard Case. blackpast.org
The Lone Journalist On the Scene When King was Shot and the Newsroom He Rallied. The New York Times.
The Modern Era
Southern Poverty Law Center. Map of Hate Groups.
Southern Poverty Law Center. Hate Incidents List.
ABC News: Hate Crimes News.
Hate Crime in America, by the Numbers.
Bureau of Justice Statistics: Race/Ethnicity.
civilrights.org. FBI Hate Crime Statistics.
NAACP: Criminal Justice Fact Sheet.
The Sentencing Project: Interactive Map of Racial Disparities.
The Sentencing Project: Racial Disparity.
deathpenaltyinfo.org. Race and the Death Penalty.
capitalpunishmentincontext.org. Race and the Death Penalty.
ACLU: Race and the Death Penalty.
Prison Policy Initiative: State-by-State Incarceration Rates by
drugwarfacts.org. Race and Prison.
pri.org. Black Church
American Psychological Association.
Black Boys Viewed as Older,Less Innocent than Whites.
The Atlantic. A Matter of
Mother Jones. Data for black vs. white deaths
The New Yorker.
Angola Prison and the Shadow of Slavery.
Campaign Zero. Ten Point plan to End Police Violence.
npr.org PA Judge Sentenced for Selling Teens into Prison
New York Times. 60 Years after Emmett Till.
The New York Times. Investigating Cases
from the Jim Crow Era.
Center for the Study of Race and Equity in Education. School
Suspension Disparity in Southern States.
The New York Times. High Rates of Rape in Native American Population
Undue Police Force in Baltmore.
Unarmed People of Color Killed by Police,
National Church Arson Task Force, Second Year Report.
hrw.org. Shielded from Justice: Police Brutality and Accountability
in the United States.
Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division,
Investigation of the Baltimore City Police Department.
Anti-Defamation League. State Hate Crimes Statutory Provisions.
Documenting Hate. ProPublica.
Understanding the Violence of
the Far Right.
United States Sentencing Commission. Demographic Differences in Sentencing: An Update to the 2012 Booker Report.
University of Michigan Law School Scholarship Repository. Racial Disparity in Federal Criminal Sentences.
Government Accountability Office. Countering Violent Extremism.
The New York Times. The Unmet Promise of Equality.
Time. 39% of Prisoners Should Not Be in Prison.
The Department of Justice. Hate Crimes.
Mass Racial Violence
Wikipedia: List of Ethnic Riots.
1898 Wilmington Race Riot Commission.
Forbes: Chart of Race Riots in the last three decades.
"Official Report of the Battle of Hamburg" South Carolina
"The New Orleans Massacre" 1866.
The Freedmen's Bureau Online. Memphis Race Riot
The Memphis Race Riot of 1866.
The Springfield Race Riot of 1908.
nextstl.com St. Louis Riot of 1949.
mentalfloss.com Notre Dame vs. the Klan 1924.