1845 to 1870 California From 1852 to 1867 among the Maidu, Miwak, Omo, Wappu, Wintu, and Yokut nations, U.S. soldiers killed approximately 4,000 people. Another 4,000 children were kidnapped from these nations by U.S. citizens. In the twenty-five year period leading up to 1870, among all California nations the population went from approximately 100,000 to 30,000 including the effects of disease. 28
1849 to 1902 California A minimum of 302 people were lynched in California from 1849 to 1902. Of these, almost 200 were Asian. 44
January 29, 1863 Bear Creek, Idaho General Patrick E. Connor led troops in battle against a Native American village. As soon as the defenders ran out of ammunition the battle quickly became a massacre. Up to 278 Native Americans were killed. 5
March 1863 Detroit, Michigan The trial of an African-American, William Faulkner, led to a riot. He was on trial for the alleged rape of two white girls. The riot was one of the key factors in the formation of the Detroit Police Department several years later. 26
July 13-17, 1863 New York City, New York The infamous Draft Riots were "the largest civil insurrection in American history apart from the South's rebellion itself." While beginning as a riot against the draft, largely by Irish immigrants, it quickly spread in "violent hostility to emancipation, abolitionists, and blacks." Included in this was a 63-year-old Mohawk Army veteran who was mistaken for black. A black orphanage was destroyed. Twenty of the children were attacked by the mob, but saved by a small group of bus drivers and firemen. Irish longshoremen also warned employers not to hire blacks. It required a regiment of Union troops to quell the riots. Blacks returned the hostility with their own nativism. The black population of New York City dropped by 20% from 1860 to 1865 mainly as a result of the riots. 1, 3, 7, 32, 41
January 12, 1864 New Mexico Kit Carson's troops kill eleven Navajos. Despite the surrender of 60 Navajos the following morning, he orders all Navajo property destroyed, including an orchard of 5000 peach trees. 5
March 1864 New Mexico During the Long Walk of the Navajos, from 4,776 who were forced to make the 300 mile march, approximately 317 died en route. Another 126 had died at Fort Canby before the march had begun. During their incarceration at Bosque Redondo, one quarter of the remaining survivors died due to starvation up until their release in 1868. 5, 28
April 12, 1864 Fort Pillow, Tennessee Major General Nathan Bedford Forrest, who after the Civil War would found the Ku Klux Klan, overran Fort Pillow with his numerically superior forces. The garrison there was predominately African-American. After the defending troops surrendered, the Confederate forces continued their onslaught massacring the black Union troops. Over 300 soldiers died in total though the vast majority are believed to have been killed after the surrender and not in the preceding battle. Some were burned or buried alive. 7, 45
April 18, 1864 Poison Spring, Arkansas Wounded black prisoners of the bloody battle were murdered by Confederate troops. 7
August 1864 Taylor, Levy, and Lafayette counties, Florida Confederate officer John K. Jackson reported, "Many deserters..are collected in the swamps and fastnesses... and have organized, with runaway negroes, bands for the purpose of committing depredations upon the plantations and crops of loyal citizens and running off their slaves. these depredatory bands have even threatened the cities of Tallahassee, Madison, and Marianna." 6
Summer 1864 Mississippi/Louisiana border area A cavalry company of African-American soldiers led by the charge of "Remember Fort Pillow" captured and shot 17 members of the Confederate army whom they believed had committed atrocities against the local slave population. 17
September 1864 Amite County, Mississippi Confederate troops attacked a band of about thirty armed slaves. Most of them were killed. 6
Summer/Fall 1864 Louisiana, counties near the Mississippi River Confederate troops destroyed everything in their retreat's path to keep resources out of the Union troops' hands, "including the slaves, who were shot or burned alive to prevent them from defecting." One Union commander reported children as young as five or six wandering around wounded as well as the charred remains of many who were barred in their quarters as they were set aflame. 17
November 29, 1864 Sand Creek, Colorado Federal troops attacked an Arapaho and Cheyenne camp that had been promised safety by Major Scott J. Anthony. Colonel John M. Chivington, when officers called the impending attack under the ruse of pledged safety murder, stated, "I have come to kill Indians, and believe it is right and honorable to use any means under God's heaven to kill Indians." Most of the men of the camp were away hunting buffalo when the attack occurred. One-hundred and five women and children were killed along with 28 men by the troops. Many of them were horribly mutilated. The soldiers decorated their caps and weapons with body parts from the slaughtered. The troops suffered only nine deaths and 38 wounded. 5, 28
1864 Currituck and Camden counties, North Carolina A Confederate newspaper claimed, "there are said to be from five to six hundred negroes, who...lead the lives of banditti, roving the country with fire and committing all sorts of horrible crimes upon the inhabitants." 6
ca. August 1863 to 1865 Washington County, Indiana In 1860 the census showed 187 African-Americans in the county, but by 1870 there were only 18. One historian describes that the "pro-slavery element" of the county threatened "to destroy the colored people who would not leave the neighborhood." There was at least one freeman killed and another violently attacked with a brick that helped propel the ostensibly free people to leave the county. The Democratic newspaper editor was involved in a plot of sedition against the Union and had purchased guns and had many men trained for a rebellion in the state. It is likely these same men were behind the purge. 21
late 1864 to 1870 Coffey, Greenwood and Woodson County, Kansas Three mixed-race Indigenous/blacks allegedly murdered a white family near Fall River. A posse set out after them and lynched one of them. Whites drove off a group of blacks near LeRoy and continued to drive them off through at least 1870. A belt of "sundown towns" became established throughout an area of these counties. One resident knew of at least three people killed during the driving out. 23
late August 1865 Tongue River, Wyoming General Patrick E. Connor attacked an Arapaho camp killing about 50, and forcing all others to flee. The entire village of over 250 lodges was burned to the ground. 5
October 1865 near Antioch, California A steamship blew up killing about 150 people. Of those, 100 were Chinese. The Chinese were forced to stay in below deck areas making them far more vulnerable to these types of accidents. 44
1865 near Shreveport Louisiana In Congressional testimony an ex-slave, Henry Adams, who had started a network of freedmen and women to track their status in the postwar era claimed that "over two thousand colored people" had been murdered in 1865 in the area. While exaggeration is highly likely with these numbers, even a fraction of this would be a highly important event in history. 1
1865 to 1866 Texas In this two year period about 500 white men were indicted for murder of African-Americans in the state's courts. Not one was convicted. 1
1865 to 1875 Louisiana Henry Adams' committee to "look into affairs and see the true condition of our race" compiled a list of 683 victims of "specific cases of outrage" just in the upper Red River parishes of Louisiana. General Philip Sheridan's investigation of 1875 showed that over the same period of time 2,141 blacks had been killed and another 2,115 wounded by whites throughout the state, and that none had been punished for their crimes. 2
ca. February 1866 District of Edgefield, South Carolina "Eight colored and one white man" were murdered as reported by Sgt. Joseph Rosch of the 54th NY V.V. stationed in Aiken, South Carolina. 35
April 16, 1866 Norfolk, Virginia A riot took place in which there were multiple "murders." In one case, a freedman was charged with the murder of a white man and was set free on $500 bail, but at trial he was sentenced to eighteers imprisonment. Captain Austin reporting to the Freedman's Bureau felt the evidence warranted acquittal. The riot took place surrounding celebrations over passage of a civil rights bill. 47
May 1-3, 1866 Memphis, Tennessee The collision of two horse-drawn carriages, one driven by a black man and the other by a white man, led to the Memphis riot, three days of white mobs attacking the South Memphis area where most blacks lived, including many soldiers. Of the forty-eight people killed, only two were white. Five black women were raped, and about 75 others injured. At least a hundred buildings were also burned and many others looted or otherwise destroyed. Preceding the riot there were a number of incidents between Irish police and black Union soldiers. On May 1 a group of 36 black soldiers came to the rescue of a fellow soldier who was being arrested. A shootout occurred in which two whites were killed. The soldiers were ordered back to their fort, but that evening whites began a rampage through South Memphis. They set property on fire including Freedmen's schools and hospitals, looted buildings, and murdered forty-six blacks over the course of the next three days. The Congressional committee which investigated, somehow blamed the riot on job competition amongst the Irish and blacks, rather than white racism. Thirty-four % of the rioters had been police officers. About 15% were grocery or saloon keepers who were probably feeling competition from black businesses. 1, 7, 45
July 30, 1866 New Orleans, Louisiana Twenty-five delegates of a Radical plan for a new constitutional convention in the state had gathered with about 200 supporters. City police and confederate veterans gathered as well to break them up. It devolved into another scene of mass violence with 34 blacks and three white Radicals being murdered. Over one hundred people were also injured before federal troops put the riot down. 1, 7, 45
December 21, 1866 near Buffalo, Wyoming This was the second defeat in U.S. Army history that resulted in no survivors. Called the "Fetterman Massacre" on the U.S. side, its death tolls were not as lopsided as "massacres" committed by U.S. troops. About 200 Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Sioux were killed or wounded. Eighty-one troops were caught within the ambush and killed. The troops were horribly mutilated. 5
1866 near Pine Bluff, Arkansas A group of black homes was torched and the inhabitants hung. Approximately twenty-four men, women, and children died. 1
1866 Circleville, Utah A massacre of Indigenous people, mostly women and children, took place. 22
April 19, 1867 Pawnee Fork, Kansas The Cheyenne abandoned their villages in the face of a show of 1,400 U.S. troops by General Winfield Scott Hancock. A couple days later he burned everything left there including "251 tepees, 962 buffalo ropes, 436 saddles" and more. 5
August 1867 St. Landry Parish, Louisiana The Republican and Democratic newspapers published lists of violence against freedpersons in the parish. Thirty-two incidents of murder and other violence were cataloged. The exact time frame of these incidents taking place was not stated in the source. 13
August 1867 Wyandotte County, Kansas About two months after the June lynching of two black men shortly after supporters of black suffrage gave speeches in Wyandotte, blacks again held a rally supporting the referendum for the vote. A few days after this rally, whites rioted severely injuring a number of blacks by stoning and beating them 23
Spring 1868 Kansas Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Sioux begin "raiding and killing white men wherever they could find them." 5
August 31, 1868 Drummondtown, Virginia A riot occurred in which several blacks and two whites were injured by pistol shots. It was essentially an attack by whites upon blacks. 47
September 10, 1868 Beecher's Island, Colorado A surprise attack by the Cheyenne and Sioux against a U.S. Army camp resulted in at least the death of one soldier, and the deaths of about 30 Native Americans 5
September 22, 1868 New Orleans, Louisiana A number of white democrats fired into a Republican procession. One black man died and several others were wounded. 7, 13, 45
September 27 - October 1868 Bossier Parish, Louisiana Most of the extreme violence came in the first ten days of this period. The U.S. Marshal reported 167 were killed in that time frame. The violence began when a white visitor from Arkansas shot at a black man on Shady Grove plantation. Freedmen restrained him overnight hoping to later take him in to area officials. A group of white men came in the morning and said they would bring him in for them. Shortly afterward a mob of about forty white men attacked the plantation shooting any black person around. A group of twenty-five black men then went to a nearby plantation and arrested two white men who had been involved in the attack. They shot and killed the two men. This unleashed the flood of white violence. 4
September 28 - November 3 1868 St. Landry Parish, Louisiana A few Democrats severely caned a white Republican teacher/newspaper editor running him out of town. Rumors of his death spread and blacks began to arm themselves to come to the aid of others who would be in danger. One such band had a confrontation with a group of whites in which one black man was killed and several on both sides were injured. Eight blacks were captured and taken to the Opelousas jail. By the end of the day almost 2,500 whites had gathered in Opelousas. Another 20 blacks were rounded up over the next couple of days to the jail as well. Late on the 29th most of the prisoners were taken out of the jail and shot. Mobs also destroyed the Republican schoolhouse and newspaper. The violence against blacks over the next month totaled 223 according to an army report. The maximum estimate of white casualties was four. 1, 7, 13
October 23, 1868 Jefferson Parish, Louisiana A mob of whites killed nine people while breaking in to homes, robbing them, and threatening everyone not to vote Republican. 13
October 25 - November 3, 1868 St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana The U.S. Army's report claimed that 68 people died in the violence surrounding the election season. 7, 13
October 1868 Caddo Parish, Louisiana On October 12 whites took five black men to the river and shot them. On October 14 a Republican elected official was shot and killed. One report estimated 43 total deaths in Caddo around the 1868 election season. 13
October 1868 Franklin Parish, Louisiana The reported estimate of killings in this parish was 57 during the election season. 13
November 3, 1868 South Carolina At White Hall, South Carolina a large group of white men led by Dr. Moses Taggart rioted to prevent African-Americans from voting in the elections. Anthony Marshall was killed and a few others were wounded and beaten. At Calhoun's Mill at least one person was wounded by being shot for the same purpose. Near Moseley's an elderly black man, Jake Jones, was killed while trying to escape assailants attacking him at home. "Innumerable" persons were injured "it being in most cases publicly declared that death would be visited on any one who attempted to vote the Republican ticket." The Klan had been night riding for at least a month terrorizing anyone who might be Republican and forcing them to stay in the woods at night lest they be murdered in their beds. 31
November 27, 1868 Washita River, Oklahoma The Cheyenne and Arapaho were refused protection of the U.S. army leaders at Fort Cobb and also not allowed to join existing Kiowa and Comanche villages. Despite their peace overtures they were attacked in the fog of the early morning by Custer's cavalry. The cavalry killed 103 in total though only 11 were warriors. They captured an additional 53 women and children. A platoon of cavalry in pursuit of survivors was later surrounded by Arapaho and those nineteen troops were all killed. 5, 28
1868 Louisiana One source gives the overall death toll in Louisiana as a result of Klan and related violence for the year as 1,081. Whippings that did not lead to death were also common. The Klan was responsible for violence in most of the northern parishes while the Knights of the White Camellia predominated in the southern parishes. 27
1868 Camilla, Georgia Anti-black rioting occurred. 29
February 1869 San Jose, California Reverend Thomas S. Dunn of the First Methodist Episcopal Missionary Sunday School gave a sermon, attended by 166 Chinese, in which he attacked the country's racist laws. The church was quickly burned to the ground and a letter was sent to Dunn telling him to leave town or die. He stayed and raised money to rebuild the church. 44
May 1869 Republican River, Kansas or Colorado General Eugene A. Carr attacked a Cheyenne "Dog Soldier" village killing several though the women and children escaped capture. The band split into smaller groups temporarily, but when reassembled began raiding white settlements and killing the settlers. The U.S.' Pawnee mercenaries eventually found and attacked the re-formed village scattering the remnants. One group under Tall Bull of about twenty were trapped in a ravine. They fought it out and only two of them survived the battle. 5
Spring 1869 Hays, Kansas A gun battle developed between white citizens and African-American soldiers. In the aftermath whites lynched two black men and drove the rest of the black community from town. 23
Spring 1869 Fort Hays, Kansas Four Indigenous people, two men and two women, were shot trying to escape from confinement there. 23
the 1870s Butte County, California Hundreds of the Yahi tribe of indigenous people was either driven out or killed by armed citizen's committees. 44
the 1870s Shasta, Trinity, and Humboldt Counties, California A Klan-like organization called the Kibbe Guard attacked the camps of indigenous peoples, and then rounded up the survivors to force them into the reservation in Mendocino County where many ofthem starved to death. "Thousands died," acording to one historian. Congress had declared in 1871 that no further treaties would be signed in California. Given the resources to be gained by kicking indigenous peoples off of their lands, the brutal policies that followed their decree were almost inevitable. 44
January 23, 1870 Marias River, Montana Major Eugene M. Baker led his cavalry against a largely undefended Piegan Blackfeet village. Forty-six Blackfeet managed to escape, but 33 men, 90 women and 50 children were slaughtered. The pretext was that this was done in retribution for the theft of a few mules. 5
1870 Laurens, South Carolina Anti-black rioting occurred. 29
1870 Eutaw, Alabama Anti-black rioting occurred. 29
1870 Meridian, Mississippi Election riots to keep blacks and Republicans from voting took place. 45
1870 to 1887 San Jose, California In 1870, the town's Chinatown area was burned down creating 500 refugees. This was the first of 6 times that San Jose's Chinatown would be burned down from then until the last time on March 4, 1887. 44
March 1870 to November 1871 Mississippi Senator Adelbert Ames reported that the Klan had killed 63 blacks in the state, and gone completely unpunished just within the first three months of 1871. In addition, he reported that during Governor Alcorn's term of less than two years that thirty black schools and churches had been burned down, similarly with no justice provided. A race riot had broken out on March 6, 1871 that lasted for three days. The trial of three freedmen for arson was interrupted by the Klan as they shot the Republican judge and several in the courtroom. One defendant was thrown off the courthouse roof and another had his throat slashed. They left about 25 dead freedpersons in the street from their carnage. 2, 7, 17
July 1870-September 1871 Texas During this period the newly formed state police arrested over 3,400 and jailed 638 people just for murder or attempted murder. In 1871, eight of the police officers were killed and four wounded. The force was 60% white and 40% black. This was generally an extremely violent time period, but there are hundreds of letters in the state archives asking for help from people who were terrorizing freedpersons. 18
1870 to Spring 1871 York County, South Carolina Major Lewis W. Merril, as part of the Seventh Cavalry sent in by President Grant, reported back to Washington D.C. that from three to four hundred whippings had been given out by night riders in York County alone and that there were no prosecutions happening. On March 6th, for example, Major James William Avery, a former Confederate, led 40 Klansmen in killing black Republican James Rainey and beating and whipping blacks throughout the town. 29, 45
April 13, 1871 east of Tuscon, Arizona An Apache raid killed four people. 5
April 30, 1871 near Camp Grant and Tucson, Arizona A veteran "Indian fighter" led a band of about 140 men, mostly mercenary Papagos, in an attack against an unarmed Aravaipo village. They killed 144 men, women, and children. Twenty-seven children were captured and sold into slavery in Mexico. The killings were especially brutal and those who were wounded were all subsequently executed. Lt. Royal E. Whitman of Camp Grant worked to bring the killers to trial in Tucson, but after a five day trial the jury stayed out for only 19 minutes before releasing the leaders of the raid. 5, 22
October 27, 1871 Los Angeles, California Initially inter-Chinese violence led to rampant rumors that the Chinese were hoarding gold and were killing whites. Eventually, a mob of whites and Mexicans 500 strong, or 10% of Los Angeles at that time, began to take "justice" into their own hands. The riot resulted in the deaths of nineteen people; seventeen Chinese had been hanged and two knifed. A Chinese woman fired a shotgun into the mob helping some Chinese to escape the riot. One white member of the mob was killed when he charged into a Chinese home. Many Chinese homes were looted and ransacked during the riot. Eleven men were brought to trial for the riot of the dozens who were indicted, and eight ere convicted of manslaughter and sent to San Quentin for between two to six years. The US Supreme Court, however, overturned those convictions and all of the men were free in just three weeks. 22, 27, 44
October 8-10, 1871 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania During the election of 1871, when a Democratic administration gave way to a Republican one just a year after blacks won the right to suffrage, white gangs roamed the racially mixed wards of town, seriously injuring many African-Americans and killing four, including Professor Octavius Catto of the Institute of Colored Youth whose funeral drew 5,000 people. One man was axed and two were shot. The gangs went inside the homes of many black residents in order to do violence to both persons and property. 43
Late 1871 in nine South Carolina counties The federal government arrested and convicted hundreds of Klan members in federal courts, leading to an immense decrease in racial violence over the next year. 46
1871 Meridian, Mississippi Anti-black rioting occurred. 29
November 28, 1872 northern California One soldier was killed and seven wounded in an attempt to disarm the Modocs. 5
late November, 1872 northern California Settlers attacked a separate Modoc camp killing two and wounding several others. In retaliation the Modocs killed twelve settlers over the next couple of days. 5
1872 Savannah, Georgia A race riot occurred. 19
1872 Hamburg, South Carolina A race riot occurred. 19
January 17, 1873 northern California U.S. soldiers attacked the Modoc stronghold in the California Lava Beds. Several soldiers died though no Modocs were seriously wounded or killed. 5
April 11, 1873 northern California At a negotiation, Kintpuash (Captain Jack), a Modoc chief killed General Edward R. Canby. The Rev. Eleazar Thomas was also killed. 5, 28
April 14, 1873 northern California A larger contingent of U.S. soldiers began hunting down the remaining Modoc bands. Hooker Jim gave himself up and offered to help hunt down Captain Jack. By June the remaining Modocs had either surrendered, been killed, or been captured. Captain Jack was hanged on October 3rd. His body was stolen, embalmed, and appeared in the eastern U.S. at carnivals where people could pay ten cents admission to see it. Over 400 U.S. soldiers died over the four months that the U.S. attempted to subjugate the Modocs. 5, 28, 44
April 5-14, 1873 Colfax, Louisiana It was the "bloodiest single instance of racial carnage in the Reconstruction era." Black veterans attempting to defend themselves against white depredations, took over the courthouse. There was a dispute as to the rightful sheriff, and there was a black (William Ward) and a white (Columbus Nash) sheriff vying to actually take hold of the office. The veterans held Colfax for three weeks until Easter Sunday (April 13) when whites, bolstered by a cannon overcame their resistance by setting the courthouse on and commenced to slaughtering about 50 blacks who had surrendered with a white flag and had lain down their arms. Three whites were killed in the last gasp of resistance of their captives. The armed mob went about killing far more victims in the vicinity that evening. The U.S. Army Captain who arrived on the 21st to quell any remaining violence reported 71 blacks had been killed. A later military report cited 81 bodies found at the site, 15 to 20 bodies that had been thrown in the Red River, and 18 others that had been buried secretly. The monument put up in Colfax in 1921 honored the killers who "Fell in the Colfax Riot Fighting for White Supremacy." 1, 2, 7, 12, 13, 29, 40
September 29, 1873 near Fort Richardson, Texas U.S. soldiers attacked a Comanche village killing 23, capturing 120 women and children, burning 262 lodges, and took hundreds of ponies. 5
late January 1875 Eureka, California Celebrations of Chinese New Year caused white lumbermen to riot against the local Chinese population, including the encouragement of white children to attack Chinese men. 44
Fall 1873 Texas A group of Kiowas and comanches went on a raid to obtain horses in Mexico. They killed some Mexicans during the raid but also killed two Texans trying to return to their village. 5
May 1874 Colfax, Louisiana After a second trial of Sheriff Columbus Nash and seven of his men for the Colfax Massacre in New Orleans, a judge threw out the guilty verdict against the three who were convicted. The earlier case had ended in a mistrial. In Colfax, whites celebrated at a large gathering and then went out and slit the throats of two more black men. These criminals were apprehended by the U.S. Army as no local law enforcement would, but blacks were by this time petrified to testify against them and they had to be released. 2
June 27, 1874 Adobe Walls, Texas Kiowas attacked a supply base to try and wipe out the buffalo hunters there. They killed and scalped two who were leaving via wagon, but fifteen Kiowas were killed in the succeeding attack on the adobe buildings where the hunters held them off. 5
July 4, 1874 Vicksburg, Mississippi White Leaguers killed several people while shooting up a rally of black Republicans. The governor called for federal troops but President Grant refused to send them. 17, 45
August 26, 1874 Tennessee Hooded men broke into a jail to capture sixteen black men who were then summarily shot. 7
August 25-30, 1874 Coushatta, Louisiana A white mob killed eleven people, five black men and six Republican officeholders (who were presumably white). One of the black men was tortured over a fire. The governor declared martial law to settle things down. Another source claims that at least 18 people were killed during the violence of these days. 2, 7, 12, 13
August 1874 Austin, Mississippi A white doctor couldn't sleep due to the singing of two black men, so he shot and killed them. When black law enforcement officers jailed the doctor, whites armed themselves and freed him from the jail. Similarly to Colfax, Louisiana, blacks seeking a stronghold took over a municipal building. Whites formed a larger militia and rested it back from their control. Afterward they killed eight to ten blacks in the town. No whites were reported injured or killed in the incident. 2
September 14, 1874 New Orleans, Louisiana "The Battle of Liberty Place" between the Metropolitan Police forces and the White League over an incoming arms shipment to the city make this incident in reality an open insurrection as can be. Despite the presence of white policemen and black militia troops, over 3,500 League members demanded the resignation of the Republican Governor. They occupied the city hall, the statehouse and the arsenals, winning the battle and the additional arms, Within the week federal forces arrived and retook the city, but over thirty-eight people died in the violence and seventy-nine were wounded. It ended Reconstruction in Louisiana. 12, 13, 45
December 1874 to January 1875 Vicksburg, Mississippi A few bands of armed blacks, marching in support of the black sheriff who had been run out of town, were scattered by better-armed white forces in the "battle" of Vicksburg. Any of the blacks that were wounded in the brief skirmishes were murdered. In the aftermath, bands of whites murdered from 30 to 75 people in the neighboring countryside until federal troops were sent in January. 1, 2, 7, 17, 45
May 29, 1875 Truckee, California Truckee's Chinatown was burned to the ground, also destroying some white-owned businesses. 44
September 1, 1875 Yazoo City, Mississippi Sheriff Albert T. Morgan, a Republican carpetbagger, and other officials were driven out of the county by a band of armed whites. The gun battle left many wounded and killed Republican Richard Mitchell, a state legislator. One source claimed ten to twenty blacks were killed. 1, 2, 7, 17, 45
September 4, 1875 Clinton, Mississippi Democrats attacked a Republican barbecue with a few white men and about eight blacks killed. This set off the bands of roving whites who over the next few days sought out prominent blacks in the countryside killing up to thirty to fifty including teachers, church leaders, and Republicans. Black Republican Square Hodge was decapitated and gutted. Lewis Russell was shot by twenty gunmen. A band of men took William Haffa, a carpetbagger who taught black children, and killed him, then executed two blacks who were his neighbors. 1, 2, 7, 17, 45
late 1875 Coahoma County, Mississippi White Democrats attacked Republican campaign rallies killing numerous people. 45
October 4-7, 1875 Friars Point, Mississippi The former governor of the state organized an attack on a political meeting at which black sheriff John Brown spoke. Six blacks and two or three whites were killed, and the sheriff fled. Again, mobs spread out into the surrounding area over the next few days to attack politically active blacks. 1, 2
Fall 1875 East Feliciana Parish, Louisiana One dozen blacks who were politically active, including former legislator John Gair, were killed. 2
November 2, 1875 Columbus, Mississippi Four voters were killed and others forced to vote Democratic at gunpoint and 14 fires set to keep Republicans from winning the elections. 17
November 2, 1875 Port Gibson, Mississippi On Election Day when blacks tried to vote in a large group, armed whites began firing upon them killing one and wounding six. 2, 17
December 5, 1875 near Rolling Fork, Mississippi About a dozen whites went to the homes of six African-Americans and kidnapped the men at gunpoint leaving the rest of their families. That night they executed them. 2
March 17, 1876 Powder River, Montana General George Crook attacked a Cheyenne/Sioux village, burning it after the Native Americans had fled, and driving off or capturing their 1200 plus ponies. 5
April 30, 1876 Antioch, California Townspeople first expelled all of the Chinese women for allegedly giving syphilis to the young men of the town, but when the women returned that night the townspeople set Chinatown on fire. A British newspaper compared the incident favorably to medieval European persecution of the Jews, saying that the Jews would have been massacred first, and then their town set on fire. "Progress in humanity" had been made in allowing the Chinese to flee before the town was set alight. 44
May 1876 Wilkinson County, Mississippi and West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana After two blacks killed a Jewish shopkeeper, or two whites in blackface killed him, depending on what story you believe, whites rampaged in a killing spree across the two counties. One official put the death toll at 38. They had been either shot or hanged. 2
June 17, 1876 Rosebud Creek, Montana Approximately a couple dozen people were killed on each side of this battle between the Cheyenne/Sioux forces and those of General George Crook. 5
July 4-8, 1876 Hamburg, South Carolina Initially the local black militia was celebrating the centennial when they had a minor verbal incident with a farmer's son and son-in-law. The farmer brought the militia's leader to court and the militia again marched to support him. The militia refused to disarm at the request of Democrat and General Matthew C. Butler who went to Augusta for cannon and hundreds of reinforcements. The militia tried to flee and about 25 were captured. Five of them were murdered by the white reinforcements who then attacked the homes and businesses of blacks in Hamburg, during which one young white person died. One of the murdered blacks had his tongue cut off and another's hip was chopped with an axe. The white reinforcements were known as the Red Shirts and were led by Benjamin Tillman who went on to a 24-year career in the U.S. Senate and spewed vitriolic racism throughout his career there. He and 93 of the Red Shirts were actually indicted for the murders by a coroner's jury but were never prosecuted. He also led the Red Shirts at a massacre in Ellenton. In 1909 at a reunion of the Red Shirts, Tillman stated "the purpose of our visit to Hamburg was to strike terror." South Carolina's legislature erected a statue to Tillman in 1940 (still there at least as of 2017), and in 1946 Clemson University named its most prominent buiding Tillman Hall (still there as of 2019). 1, 2, 7, 48, 52, 53
June 25-26, 1876 Little Bighorn River, Montana Cheyenne/Sioux forces completely routed Lt. Colonel George Custer's cavalry forces, killing 268 men and wounding the remaining members of the contingent. Custer was posthumously promoted to General. Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull led the attack. 5, 28
August 1876 to March 1877 Butte County, California Half of Oroville's Chinatown is burned to the ground in August 1876 setting off a long-term arson campaign against the Chinese in Butte County by the Supreme Order of the Caucasians. On March 14, 1876, six Chinese were shot, four of them mortally wounded, as the arson campaign in Butte County continued. Twenty-nine men were arrested for the murders and arsons, but the fires continued to be set during their trial. The murderers were sentenced to 12 to 25 years, but the Governor in 1881, a former businessman from Butte County, released them all for time served. Meanwhile, two Chinese miners were murdered by white miners in April 1879. Chico's Chinatown was burned to the ground in 1880. It was rebuilt in brick. 44
September 9, 1876 near Slim Buttes, South Dakota The Sioux village of American Horse was attacked by Captain Anson Mills. He trapped twenty Native Americans, including American Horse in a cave. They fought bravely killing two soldiers and wounding nine, but many of them were also killed, and American Horse was fatally wounded. 5
September 1876 Ellenton, South Carolina Seventeen African-Americans were slaughtered by whites over the course of one week after a white woman was hit with a stick by a black robber in her home. Some reports say up to 50 were murdered. The "rifle club" of more than 500 whites known as the Red Shirts was led by Benjamin Tillman, later U.S. Senator. Federal troops were sent in by President Grant which temporarily calmed things, but they did not attempt to dissuade violence for the long term. The larger context for these killings was that as former Confederate General Wade Hampton campaigned across the state for political office an estimated 150 blacks were murdered. 2, 52
October 1876 Cainhoy, South Carolina A number of blacks fired upon a meeting of both Democrats and Republicans. Five whites and one black died. 1
November 25, 1876 Powder River, Wyoming A Cheyenne village was attacked by Ranald Mackenzie's U.S. soldiers and Pawnee mercenaries. The Cheyennes' ponies were shot, lodges burned, and those who weren't killed were forced to flee. On the first night of their flight, "twelve infants and several old people froze to death." 5
1876 East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana In the eight months leading up to the election over 60 black Republicans were killed according to a Senate investigating committee report. 2
February 1877 San Francisco, California Four hundred white workers attacked Chinese construction workers who lived in a company barracks, injuring at least a dozen of them. 44
March 5, 1877 Hamburg, South Carolina On Rutherford B. Hayes' inauguration day, blacks were attacked in Hamburg and some were killed. 45
early June 1877 Rocky Canyon, Idaho A group of Nez Perce killed eleven white settlers in retaliation for the theft of some of their livestock. 5
June 17, 1877 White Bird Canyon, Idaho General Oliver Howard sent forces into a Nez Perce trap. Though outnumbered, the Nez Perce killed about one third of the soldiers while taking very few casualties. 5
late July 1877 San Francisco, California On the 23rd of July 1877, anti-Chinese workers set blocks of buildings ablaze in Chinatown. The next day about 6,000 men formaed a "merchants' militia" toattack the Chinese. They armed themselves with pick handles when they learned that the police had armed themselves with 1,700 rifles to quell any potential violence. The rioters attempted to burn the docks of the Pacific Mail Steamship Company who brought many Chinese immigrants to the US. In neighboring Oakland, the mayor armed volunteers to protect businesses that employed Chinese workers. 44
August 10, 1877 Big Hole, Montana Colonel John Gibbon led volunteers and some infantry against a group of Nez Perce in an early morning attack. About eighty Nez Perce died, mostly women and children. About thirty of the attackers were killed and another forty wounded. 5
September 15 to 21, 1877 the Sacramento Valley, California Three whites were killed in the town of Rocklin, with one of them as they were dying accusing a few Chinese men of the crime. Officers arrested ten nearby Chinese miners at their cabins. The next morning mobs called on all Chinese in Rocklin to leave town and they were marched out of town by 4 p.m. Then the mob demolished twenty-five houses and burned the rest of the Chinatown to the ground. A short time later the town of Penryn "was cleared." In Roseville they ordered 60 Chinese miners out of the camps in the nearby area. Pino and Loomis continued the trend. Grass Valley burned down their Chinatown in just a half hour. Dutch Flat's and Walnut Grove's Chinatowns burned down the following month. 44
September 30, 1877 Cow Island Landing, Montana General Nelson Miles attacked Chief Joseph's Nez Perce village. In the first wave the Nez Perce killed 24 soldiers and wounded 42 more. On the first day of fighting they also lost 18 men and 3 women. After five days Joseph surrendered with terms that the remaining Nez Perce would be sent to their reservation. Instead they were marched to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. About 100 Nez Perce died in captivity there before they were transferred to the Indian Territory. 5, 44
May 1878 Truckee, California The Chinatown was set on fire for a second time as townspeople stoned Chinese fleeing the flames. Later that year more Chinese homes were blown up. 44
Fall 1878 one Louisiana parish According to a report by the local U.S. district attorney, during the election campaigns of that year over fifty African-Americans were killed and many others forced to flee from their homes. Not a single Republican vote was counted in that parish. 18
November 9, 1878 Truckee, California The Caucasian League led 500 residents to Chinatown and tore it down, it having only recently been re-built after arson earlier in the year. This forced the Chinese to move across the river from the main portion of town in Truckee. 44
1878 Reno, Nevada Arson destroyed all fifty Chinese homes in the town. One man and woman were consumed by the flames. Firefighters stood by only protecting white homes from the conflagration. 44
January 9, 1879 Hat Creek Bluffs, Nebraska Cheyennes captive at Fort Robinson broke out in a massive escape to get to the Dakotas. Soldiers rounded up 65 on the following day. They trapped another 32 in a canyon and battled with them until only nine survived. 5
September 29, 1879 Milk and White Rivers, Colorado Utes and U.S. soldiers engaged in battle on the 29th setting off a long battle. The Utes killed Indian agent Nathan Meeker and his male employees, and captured and raped the three females with them. Approximately 300 Utes surrounded 200 soldiers and kept them fighting for days killing 12 and wounding 43. Thirty-seven Utes died in the fight. In 1881 the remaining Utes were marched 350 miles to a Utah reservation. 5
late 1879/early 1880 Truckee, California Residents for the third time destroy much of Chinatown, this time again by arson. 44
1879-1880 New Mexico and Texas The leader Victorio began a guerilla war based in Mexico against the United States. With about 200 Mescaleros and Chiricahuas, he raided ranches, killed settlers, and ambushed cavalry troops. He became "a ruthless killer, torturing and mutilating his victims. 5
1880s and 1890s Fort Humboldt in Eureka, California Thousands of indigenous peoples were held at Fort Humboldt in crowded conditions that resulted in high mortality rates. The U.S. military sold many of these children into slavery, many to work as domestic servants in nearby places like Eureka and Arcata, or on farms in Ferndale. 44
early 1880's Arizona In the Graham-Tewksbury War, dozens of Mexican sheepherders were killed by white ranchers. In the summer of 1881, for example, at least three incidents of large-scale violence against Mexicans occurred in which, nine, four, and three people were likely killed. 19, 24
May 1880 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania On Decoration Day every year, when Civil War veterans wore their uniforms and paraded through the streets, black soldiers often had to deal with a gauntlet of whites throwing stones at them and firing pistol shots. Black soldiers often had their bayonets fixed at the ready in case of stronger violence. In this particular year though things got even further out of hand and several people were shot and stabbed. Whites also trashed many saloons along the parade route. 43
November 2, 1880 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Gunfire had been a part of the entire election season as shots were fired at a black celebration of the Fifteenth Amendment. Then, they` retaliated by firing shots at a Democratic gathering of 15,000 people. Finally, on election night November 2nd, several blacks were "shot down" as they celebrated the victory of newly-elected Republican president James Garfield. 43
December 31, 1880 Denver, Colorado The lynching of a Chinese laundryman by a mob of about 3,000 spilled into the destruction of the Chinatown in the city. Twenty-four mob members were arrested but released, and all four murder suspects were acquitted. 44
1880 California The towns of Roseville, Rocklin, and Garberville expel all of their Chinese residents. 44
October 1881 Dutch Flat, California The town burns their Chinatown to the ground, but the newspaper reports that only four white landlords actually sustained any losses. 44
ca. 1881 Auburn, California The Chinatown in Auburn is torched. 44
November 1882 Diamondville, California Arson takes out Diamondville's Chinatown. 44
April 1883 Dutch Flat, California Again, just 18 months after the first incident, Dutch Flat's Chinatown is burned down. 44
1884-1885 Pacific Northwest More than a hundred towns attempt to purge their Chinese communities. Houses rented to Chinese in numerous towns of Sonoma County are blown up. 44
March 1884 Cincinatti, Ohio This incident had as much to do with nativism as racism. A German American and an African American accused of killing the former's employer were convicted and jailed. White Cincinattians were furious though that the German American was convicted of manslaughter and not murder. A mob stormed the jail attempting to lynch the two, but failed. The next evening they burned down the courthouse and the governor called out the militia. Before the violence could be stopped 56 people had died in the rioting and over 200 had been injured. The black perpetrator was hanged, but not the German American. 45
November 3, 1884 Danville, Virginia Three days before that year's election four to six blacks were killed and seven to 10 wounded with only two whites injured, as whites attacked to affect turnout. The successful Readjuster movement which had united poor blacks and whites was severed due to the violence and subsequent propaganda. (It is unclear to me whether there was an earlier Danville riot on May 19, 1884 or whether the Bennett source has an incorrect date, though my guess is the latter.) 7, 18
February 6-7, 1885 Eureka, California Three hundred and ten Chinese were forced out of Eureka to San Francisco onto two steamships after two Chinese men who had been shooting at one another caught an innocent white man in their crossfire. The Chinese were forcibly removed, and their stores looted. The policy of no Chinese lasted into the 1950's. Over the next 18 months in Humboldt County, other communities followed Eureka's lead and began expelling their own Chinese communities as in Arcata, Crescent City, Ferndale, Hydesville, Salmon Creek, and Springville. 44
March 11, 1885 Marysville, California The Chinese riot against police brutality. 44
circa mid-1885 Tulare, California The Chinese community was burned down in Tulare causing one hundred families to lose all of their belongings and many of them to leave town. 44
September 2, 1885 Rock Springs, Wyoming Twenty-eight Chinese immigrants were murdered. The Knights of Labor had asked Chinese miners to join a strike, and when they refused the violence started. Approximately 150 British, Irish and Swedish miners marched on the Chinatown with shotguns. About 90 homes were burned to the ground, and the miners chased after the Chinese who fled, shooting many of them. In addition to those directly murdered, another fifty Chinese may have died of exposure and starvation as they fled their pursuers for safety. The US government eventually paid $147,748 in reparations to the Chinese government for the violence against its citizens in order to avoid losing trade with China. On October 8, in Cheyenne, hundreds celebrated the acquittal of 16 of the rioters who had attacked the Chinese. Federal troops escorted the Chinese back to the mines a week later. 27, 44
September 7, 1885 near Newcastle, Washington A mob burned the barracks of 36 Chinese miners. 44
October 24, 1885 Seattle, Washington Earlier in October three Chinese were gunned down, But on October 24th, hundreds of whites burned down the city's Chinatown and gave a November 1 deadline for all Chinese to leave town. President Grover Cleveland sent in a US Infantry Regiment to keep the peace after the Governor of Washington Territory declared martial law. 44
November 3, 1885 Tacoma, Washington Two days after the Mayor's deadline for the Chinese to leave town, about 500 men broke into buildings in the Chinese district and often at gunpoint and forced them to grab whatever belongings they could and leave Tacoma. About 200 Chinese were rounded up by the city wharf and were then marched under guard to a railroad depot. They were forced to pay for their own tickets as they were being expelled from town. Others began a march to Portland. By evening there were no Chinese left in Tacoma. Over the next two days the Chinese' homes and businesses were burned to the ground. Congress eventually approved $103,365 in damages to the Chinese government for these events. The US Attorney in Tacoma filed charges against the rioters and their leaders, and the Justice Dept. ordered four companies stationed in Seattle to head to Tacoma. Twenty-seven of the leaders were arrested. Because the town's leaders and officials were all behind the purge of the Chinese, the defense successfully argued that there had been no insurrection since no officials had ever tried to stop their expulsion of the Chinese, therefore the men were innocent of any crime. 44
Fall 1885 Coal Creek, Washington A Chinese miner was kidnapped and then choked to death, and 37 other miner's homes were burned. 44
late 1885 Pasadena, California Chinatown is set on fire and white residents loot the Chinese buildings. Many residents flee to Los Angeles as the Chinese are given a 24-hour deadline to leave town. 44
December 1885 to February 1886 Truckee, California The "Truckee method" was born. Townspeople, not wanting too use outright violence anymore to get rid of their Chinese neighbors, designed a plan using economic intimidation to boycott all white employers who used Chinese labor, as well as Chinese businesses. Effectively, this caused the Chinese to be starved out of town with between 600 and a thousand Chinese leaving in just a ten-week period. Small towns across California copied the method forming anti-Chinese organizations to force withdrawal of any economic support for their Chinese communities. Among them were Arbuckle, Visalia, Gridley, Sonoma, Ukiah, Yreka, Marysville, St. Helena, Shingle Springs, Orland, Georgetown, Aptos, Merced, Pentz, Ventura, Napa, Vina, Germantown, and Petaluma. The residents counted on "poverty and destitution" to do the work which violence had formerly done. By late spring of 1886, thousands of Chinese are moving to the eastern United States. 44
January 3, 1886 Placerville, California A year-long campaign of arson against the Chinatown in Placerville begins. 44
January 26, 1886 Redding, California A mob goes after the Chinese in its Chinatown, burning much of it. They go from house to house telling every Chinese that they must leave by January 31. Certain "criminals" are told to leave at once. The newspaper reports that "Redding is now a white man's town." The US government ends up paying about $8,000 in reparations to the Chinese government for the incident. 44
February 1886 Seattle, Washington After federal troops left Seattle, a mob of about 1,500 whites invaded Chinatown forcing the 400 residents to pack their belongings onto wagons and head to the docks to be shipped to San Francisco. Those who could not fit on the ship, were taken to the courthouse. There the angry mob murdered one Chinese man and wounded four more. 44
February 1886 Marysville and Wheatland, California Chinese farm workers from multiple areas were seized and marched into the mountains and let loose after their cabins and belongings were torched. At least one elderly man was also pistol-whipped. 44
March 17, 1886 Carrollton, Mississippi Thirteen to twenty blacks were killed in the "Carrollton Massacre." The slaughter broke out in a court room during a trial as about 100 white men busted in to commit the killings and stifle any attempts by blacks to use the judicial process to obtain their rights. 7, 35
March 28, 1886 Sonora, Somersville, and Tigre, California One hundred-seventy armed men rounded up Chinese road workers and miners, though many fled into the hills. Others began raiding Chinese homes. One home in Tigre was blown up with dynamite. A newspaper in Sonora declared that "It was a peaceable, orderly, and effective movement...to keep Chinese labor away from the county....A movement of similar character was never better concluded." 44
March 1886 Arcata, California Over the course of the month, the town raises money to ship all of its Chinese, mostly women prostitutes, off to San Francisco. After they are arrested, they are expelled from the town. 44
March 1886 Chico, California Arsonists target farms in Chico that are employing Chinese labor, causing many of them to fire their workers. 44
May 9, 1886 Honolulu, Hawaii The Chinatown was burned leaving 8,000 people homeless. 44
May 17, 1886 Carson, Nevada Mobs burn the shops of white businesspeople who had refused to fire their Chinese laborers or boycott other businesses who did not do the same. 44
June 17, 1886 Truckee, California The town's Chinatown was burned to the ground yet again. This caused most of the remaining Chinese who had not fled the economic boycott to flee. Only a few stubbornly brave stragglers remained afterward. Two Chinese who had been hiding in their basement died. 44
July 1886 Chico and Modesto, California The Chinatowns of the two towns are burned down. 44
August 1886 Yreka, California Fire destroys two blocks of Chinese buildings, but when the fire spread to white businesses, Chinese were beaten and impressed into labor on the fire engines to put out the flames. Five Chinese children died in the fires. 44
October 23, 1886 North San Juan, California Chinatown was torched. 44
December 1866 San Francisco, California A strike on streetcar lines turns into an anti-Chinese riot. Laborers stoned Chinese homes. 44
1886 Comanche County, Texas A young black farmhand killed a white woman and fled, but was eventually captured by local whites. After his capture he was hanged, despite a deputy's pleas that he was likely to meet the same fate if the crowd of about 750 let him take the teenager into custody. Immediately following the extralegal execution the crowd agreed to give remaining blacks in the area ten days to leave and that evening marched into town to spread the message. The county divided mostly along farm and town lines with town residents opposing the move by the mob and farmers by and large supporting it. The Texas Rangers arrived just in time for the ten-day deadline but the areas blacks in town, about 40-50, had already left. 21, 36
1886 Washington County, Texas White Democrats attempted to take control of the ballot boxes in a Republican precinct but they were resisted by armed black Republicans. One white man was killed by a black man in the standoff. Eight blacks were arrested for the crime, and three of them were abducted from the jail and lynched. White Republicans pushed for investigation in to the matter but the local sheriff refused to do so, and the US attorney was also unsuccessful in securing convictions. 45
1886-1887 Fort Marion, Florida Geronimo and his fellow Chiricahua were sent to Fort Marion, Florida where over 100 of them died from consumption. All of their children were taken away as well and sent to the Carlisle school in Pennsylvania. About fifty of them died there. 5
February 1887 Hell's Canyon, Oregon Thirty-one Chinese miners were killed in the "Snake River massacre." They were murdered, mutilated, and thrown in the river by white farmers and schoolboys. 44
May 1887 San Jose, California The Chinatown known as Ah Toy Alley was burned down. The town's 10,000 gallon water tank somehow was empty at the time of the fire. 44
November 1887 Temescal, California A gang dynamited Chinese warehouses in the city. 44
about November 22-24, 1887 Thibodeaux, Louisiana While beginning as the putting down of a Knights of Labor strike against sugar planters, possibly over 300 African- Americans were killed by whites in the violence that was unleashed. Thousands more were forced to flee their homes. Not one white worker in the strike was killed, though some were wounded. Conservative newspaper estimates placed the death toll at 35. It is considered one of the bloodiest labor conflicts in United States history, but the racial tensions involved surely escalated this massacre to another level beyond the normal bounds of violence against striking workers. 1, 8, 45
1889 to 1916 across the US In 12 separate states, in 15 separate incidents at least 38 persons of Italian surname were lynched according to the NAACP's compilation of lynchings. 27
1889 to 1918 Texas According to the NAACP's documenting of lynchings, 335 occurred during this period in Texas, nearly a rate of one a month. Seventy-eight percent of these lynchings were of African-Americans. 36
1890 to 1930 Montana Gradual expulsion of African-Americans from the state of Montana occurred over these decades. In 1890 black settlers were living in all 56 counties in the state. But, by 1930, eleven of these counties had been completely cleared of black residents. White mobs forced out the black residents of Miles City. In 1910 there, blacks were 2% of the population, but is only about 0.3% today. Helena, the state capital had a peak of 420 black residents in 1910, and by 1930 that had dropped to 131. As of 2010 the city had only 113 African-American residents. The state had banned marriages between blacks and whites in 1906. A 1915 newspaper article in Glendive proclaimed its sundown town status stating "the sun is never allowed to set on any niggers in Glendive." 52
December 29, 1890 Wounded Knee Creek, South Dakota U.S. soldiers massacred between 150 and 300 Sioux men, women and children. Approximately 25 soldiers were killed and 39 of them wounded, though some accounts has these casualties as largely by friendly fire, as the Sioux had been mostly disarmed before the massacre began. Another account has the Sioux running to regain their piled up weapons as they sensed the danger from the soldiers and their impending plans of violence, though this was largely unsuccessful given the Hotchkiss guns trained on the group. Survivors were brought to a church where a large banner read "Peace on earth and good will to men." Twenty soldiers were given the Congressional Medal of Honor for their role in the "battle". 3, 5, 28
March 14, 1891 New Orleans, Louisiana After the assassination of the New Orleans' police chief, random Italians were rounded up as the potential assassins. Nine were brought to trial on March 13th and found not guilty for lack of evidence. They were in Parish Prison for the night and to be released the following day, but in the morning a mob of thousands had already gathered to seek "justice". Jacob Seligman, the foreman of the jury, was chased by a part of the mob, but police saved him from danger so he could flee the city, but he lost his successful business. The warden of Parish Prison, aware of the mob, released the Italians and told them to hide in the women's section. Non-Italian prisoners, afraid for their own lives from the mob gave up the hiding place though. One of the Italians had forty-two bullet holes when the mob was through with him. Most were murdered instantly. One was shot as he was hanged, and another hanged even though already dead. Altogether 11 Italians were lynched, only seven of whom were defendants in the murder trial. Theodore Roosevelt called the event a "rather good thing." 15
1891 Arkansas The leaders of a cotton picker's strike were killed. Nine were lynched after being taken into custody, and fifteen died in total. 1
August 1, 1893 Como, Colorado The Chinatown housing mostly miners was scorched by angry white workers. The fire department put out the intitial fire but this just enraged the mob more who then finished the job. 44
August-September 1893 California Anti-Chinese riots throughout the state took place in which Chinese were beaten, shot, or often loaded onto trains under the threat of violence and shipped out of town. In Fresno on August 1, fires struck several businesses employing Chinese labor. Though some that burned did not employ the Chinese. On August 15, a mob hit the vineyards near Fresno stealing from the Chinese workers, and killing one man with a blow to the head. Other workers were forced onto trains to leave the county, and their tent camps destroyed. Mobs beat up Chinese farm workers in Napa Valley on the 17th. Three bombs exploded killing one man at the house of a Chinese merchant on August 30. The National Guard was called out in Redlands and San Bernardino. In Riverside, labor leaders threatened to hang 20 Chinese if employers did not fire them all. This never happened, but they did beat any Chinese they found in the streets of Chinatown or the fields outside the city. The armed anti-Chinese League in Norwalk threatened to lynch 60 men if a large vineyard owner didn't release his workers from employment. He complied with the mob. In La Grange on the night of September 26, two hundred men forced the Chinese out of their homes, looted them, and forced them out of the city. 3, 44
September 1-2, 1893 Selma, California On September 1 a mob of forty men drove out the Chinese residents of the town. The next day, with the Chinese having returned in the middle of the night, mobs agian pulled them out of their homes and marched them toward Fresno. Police came to the aid of the Chinese firing upon the rioters and arresting some of them, but other mob members had pillaged their homes by the time the Chinese returned. 44
early September 1893 Butteville, Oregon Two Chinese homes were blown up and on the 4th seventy-five whites forced the Chinese from the local hop ranches on a train for Portland. 44
April 27, 1894 Polk County, Tennessee From 1890 to 1900, almost half of the black population of the county was driven out. The main precipitating event occurred when a band of about 50 white armed men went to Ferguson Station where a black labor camp was set up, fired upon the sleeping men in tents and ran them out of the area. Whites did not want blacks competing for their jobs. 21
May 1894 Pleasanton and Vaca Valley, California The "Industrial Army," a name taken from a best-selling novel about an all-white utopia, "looted cabins, beat the Asian workers, and seized many as prisoners." 44
October 17, 1894 Washington Court House, Ohio William Dolby had been charged with raping a white woman. On the way to his trial he was nearly lynched by a large mob estimated to be between 300 and 2,500 people. Eighty-five National Guard troops protected him at the time with several soldiers and mob members being injured. Dolby was quickly sentenced to twenty years which was the maximum by Ohio state law. Fearing they could not hold out against the crowd if they took Dolby to the train station, they decided to wait in the courthouse and guard the prisoner until more troops could arrive. The mob fashioned a battering ram and broke the doors down, but was met with a volley of fire by the guards that killed six people and injured ten. Reinforcements arrived the next morning which allowed them to bring Dolby to the state penitentiary. 35
March 11-12, 1895 New Orleans, Louisiana After black laborers were attacked by whites, troops were called in to settle things down. 7
January 1896 Manatee County, Florida Initially, a fight between a black boy and a white boy was won by the black boy. The white boy happened to be the sheriff's son so he rounded up a small posse and went to the boy's cabin at night. In attempting to seize the boy, the boy's father killed the sheriff and another two white men, before they fled into the swamps to hide. According to the newspaper account the father and the boy "had not been captured and tortured to death" but the county's "noble and manly whites" had been traversing the countryside "firing into the cabins of innocent and defenseless blacks, burning up the homes of some, killing others, and ordering a general exodus of negroes, threatening a boycott on employers of labor who would not discharge their negro help." 42
1897 Chicago, Illinois In the Woodlawn neighborhood white residents "declared war" on African-American residents and drove them all out with threats of violence. The authorities did not protect the African-American families. 52
November 10, 1898 Wilmington, North Carolina A Populist-Republican fusion ticket had won the elections of 1894 and 1896 in North Carolina. This led to the political empowerment of some African-Americans. In 1898 Wilmington's city council had four blacks and six whites, for example. Democrats abandoned the electoral process for a coup. A secret committee drew up a "Declaration of White Independence" and on election day, 400 armed whites gathered outside the black newspaper. They demolished the press and set the building afire. Blacks began to flee the city, but the armed whites killed between eight and 30 blacks before state militias came to quell the violence. The next day six black leaders were placed on a train and told not to return. The insurgents "legally" accepted the resignations of the city council, mayor and chief of police, and installed new council members who voted the head of the secret committee as the new mayor. It has been considered the only successful, violent overthrow of a government in US history, though the levels of violence throughout the Reconstruction South make this claim somewhat dubious and more a difference of degree, than one of kind. 7, 18, 45
1898 Lake City, South Carolina Hundreds of whites participated in burning the house of federally-appointed postmaster Frazier Baker. He was shot to death defending his family. When his wife took her child and baby out of the burning house to flee, all three of them were shot with the baby being killed. 45
1898 Phoenix, South Carolina A shootout between Republicans and Democrats occurred after the local white Republican candidate called for blacks who had been denied the right to vote to fill out an affidavit. No one was killed, but the frustrated whites went to a nearby community in Greenwood County and forced blacks at gunpoint to "bow down and salute them." 45
1899 Griffin and Barnesville, Georgia In May 1899, a mob of about thirty workers from Kincaid Manufacturing Company attacked three black men who also worked in the factory. They seized them from their homes at night and whipped them. The following day other black workers at the mill were threatened with violence and most of them quit. Another black man was also seized from his home and beaten badly. Letters were then sent to the owner of the mill and its superintendent demanding that no more blacks be hired. The mayor of Griffin called out the militia to protect the mill and its officials but the damage had already been done. The group then spread letters amongst the area's other employers with the same warning. Also that year, not 20 miles away in Barnesville, owners of the Oxford Knitting Mills tried to move some black employees into the mill near white women employees. The white women went on strike and the mill closed temporarily. The owner responded by firing the black workers. White workers also postered the town with warnings for blacks not to come back to the mill and began a series of random attacks and assaults on blacks. 46
April 1899 Palmetto, Georgia Nine African Americans were detained in a warehouse and were awaiting trial on suspicion of arson. Before the trial could occur, all nine were shot, with five dying. All of their familes were forced to flee the area. A couple of weeks later one of the most infamous lynchings in US history took place in Palmetto, that of Sam Hose. Over 2,000 people were present at the grisly spectacle where he was first meticulously tortured and then burnt to death while tied to a tree. 45
ca late 1890's Grimes County, Texas Throughout the 1890's black and white Populists worked together in this county. One example was that the white sheriff appointed black deputies. The coalition ended after a black man was killed, the white sheriff was wounded, and he and his family were run out of town by a mob of Democrats. 18
July 24-27, 1900 New Orleans, Louisiana An African-American school and 30 homes were burned in the race riot that also injured several people. 7
August 15-16, 1900 New York, New York Initially an African-American woman was being arrested by a plain-clothes police officer. Her husband whowas nearby thought she was being abducted and stabbed the officer with his penknife. The officer died. On the day of his funeral, African-American citizens were pulled off of street cars and chased in the streets and beaten by white mobs and by police officers. Numerous African-Americans were also pulled from their homes and beaten. Some African-Americans were dragged to police precincts where they were beaten further and then jailed on false charges for as much as 90 days. 33
1901 Lawrence County, Missouri In 1894 just across the county line in Monett, Missouri, whites ran blacks out of town following a large fight between white and blacks in which one white person was killed. Many of these same men would come to Pierce City in Lawrence County looking to help out with the situation there. A young white woman had been murdered. Though it is very unclear whether or not they were the real killers, two black males were put in the Pierce City jail. Later that evening about 300 armed men came into town from Monett looking for a lynching. They stormed the jail and dragged out the two. A 17-year-old was eventually released by the mob, but the other older male was hanged and then shot to pieces. A young boy was killed and several wounded by the "indiscriminate firing." The mob then headed to the black side of town where they shot up and torched most buildings. A 71-year-old feeble black man was unable to escape one of the burning buildings and was cremated. The lynched boy's grandfather was shot to death. Order was restored according to a newspaper account mainly because of "the lack of negroes to shoot upon." Two-thirds of blacks left the county between the 1900 and 1910 censuses. Neighboring counties/towns followed suit as the news spread through Missouri giving their black residents ultimatums to leave. 21, 42
ca. 1902 to 1912 eastern Oklahoma Approximately five thousand Muskogee Creek led by Chitto Harjo (Crazy Snake) formed an alternative government at a settlement called Hickory Ground. Harjo was jailed, but after attaining his freedom he led his people into the wilderness and fought from there for a decade until he was shot by federal soldiers. 28
1902 Woolen Mills, California The city's Chinatown was burned down. 44
1902 Greensburg, Indiana Blacks were forced to flee the city due to white attacks. 45
early July 1903 Norway, South Carolina A white farmer's son beat four black workers savagely. Someone then retaliated by killing the farmer who happened to be a Confederate veteran. Whites then seized a random local black man and lynched him. Further escalating the situation, 200 armed blacks then surrounded the town, on the 4th of July, threatening to burn it down. The Governor had to call in the state militia to quell the conflict. 37
July 5, 1903 Evansville, Indiana A race riot occurred by white mobs against the African-American area of town. A black man had been accused of killing a white police officer. Whites broke into the jail to lynch him, but were repulsed by armed blacks. Police charged in and took the man to a secure location and broke up the crowd. 25, 37
July 5, 1903 Peoria, Illinois Six hundred whites searched for a black woman who was accused of beating a white boy. Finding that the woman was already in jail, they dismantled her home to its foundations, and throwing her belongings into a nearby river. 37
August 12, 1903 Whitesboro, Texas A lynching of an African-American man stopped by law officers from Sherman, Texas left the mob unsatisfied. They began to fire guns indiscriminately in the black section of town and ordered all blacks to leave at once. It was claimed that "outgoing trains on all roads were filled with negroes. 42
1903 Danville, Illinois A mob of over 600 whites killed two African-Americans , and injured 22 more, being incensed that a black man accused of rape had escaped their search. 40
February 7, 1904 Doddsville, Mississippi White planter James Eastland entered a cabin on his plantation where three black men were, including Luther Holbert. Eastland ordered Holbert to leave the plantation, and a gunfight ensued in which two of the black men (John Carr and John Winters) and Eastland were killed. Holbert, the only survivor, fled with his wife. A posse came to Eastland's plantation and killed one unknown African-American. When the posse caught up with Holbert and his wife. They were brought back to Doddsville where they were burned at the stake by a large mob directly next to a black church. Two other unknown blacks were killed when another posse mistook one of them for Holbert. Eight people lost their lives due to the conflict between two individuals, one black and one white. 42
March 8, 1904 Springfield, Ohio After the lynching of African-American Richard Dixon on March 7th, white mobs had not had their fill of violence. On the 8th the crowd of over one thousand headed to the "Levee," a saloon district, and set fire to seven saloons which were owned by African-Americans. The city then shut down the remaining black-owned saloons 25, 42
March 25, 1904 St. Charles, Arkansas Nine African-Americans were lynched in the St.Charles vicinity in one week. 42
1905 Boone County Arkansas An October 6, 1905 newspaper article describes whites breaking into the county jail in Harrison, taking numerous blacks out to whip them, and then ordering them to leave town. It was entitled "Drive Negroes from Harrison." Economic competition was a likely factor in the expulsion. 21
1905 Chicago, Illinois Labor strife in which black strikebreakers were used, led to the killing of twenty blacks by white mobs. 45
March 19, 1906 Chattanooga, Tennessee Responding to the lynching of Ed Johnson, the black community of Chattanooga rioted in the downtown area throwing bricks at white people and police. Some businesses were destroyed and both blacks and whites were injured. Johnson had a militia assigned to protect him, but neither the sheriff nor his deputies alerted the militia about the lynch mob. The militia did end up quelling the riot. The US Supreme Court in United States v. Shipp found the sheriff and his deputies in contempt of court for violating Johnson's rights. 45
April 30, 1906 Greensburg, Indiana After law enforcement officials held off whites who were attempting to lynch a mentally-impaired black prisoner, the mob turned their attention to the law-abiding blacks in town. Homeswere shot at and torched, businesses destroyed, and many blacks driven out of town. No one was killed but there were many injured, and thousands of dollars in property damage occurred. 45
August 13, 1906 Brownsville, Texas An incident occurred leaving one white man dead and a few others injured. It was covered in the inaugural issue of the NAACP's W.E.B. DuBois' edited The Crisis. The 25th Infantry, the famous "Buffalo soldiers," had served in Cuba and the Phillipines with distinction, but in July they were welcomed to their new station at Fort Brown with signs telling them not to use the parks or to enter certain stores. They could drink in the Mexican bars but not in the three white bars. A woman claimed to have been attacked by a black man on August 12th and late that night a shooting spree occurred, in which numerous people identified the attackers as black. The white commanding officers testified that the black soldiers were in their barracks. A grand jury in the county did not indict any of the soldiers. Yet, President Roosevelt issued a dishonorable discharge to all 167 of the units soldiers, allowing them no benefits despite their time served. The incident was considered a miscarriage of justice and helped cause the founding of both the NAACP and the National Urban League. It also contributed to the flow of blacks away from the Republican party. The decision was finally voided in 1972, when only two of the soldiers remained alive. 7, 36, 45, 48
September 21-24, 1906 Atlanta, Georgia A race riot occurred in which ten blacks and two whites were killed, and martial law was declared. Other sources claims at least 21 to 24 blacks had been killed, and as many as 6 whites. A crime wave among blacks zealously exaggerated by the newspapers sparked the riot. The newly elected Governor's campaign had also stirred up racist sentiment during that year, as did an upcoming return production of The Clansman. An estimated 10,000 men and boys mobbed the streets destroying storefronts, invading black businesses, and committing violence. Soldiers marched in the streets after the first night of rioting, but they were unable to control the vast crowds. 7, 21, 30, 37, 45
December 24, 1906 Sharp County, Arkansas A newspaper article a few days after the incident was subheaded: "Mysterious Threats Have Driven Almost Every Negro from Evening Shade." It reported at least one black being shot, and a notice being posted for all blacks to leave town at once. In 1900 the census reported 91 blacks in the Salyersville area outside of Evening Shade but in 1910 just 8, all from just two families. The county went from 212 African-Americans down to 83 in 1910, and then 15 in 1920. 21
1906 Springfield, Ohio A bar brawl between three whites and two African-Americans most likely led to the killing of one of the whites in a railyard. The two African-Americans were arrested and rushed out of town, yet mobs attacked the black areas of town over the next three days burning down at least 13 buildings with little resistance from local officials. The military was finally called in to stop the rioting. 25
1906-1907 San Francisco, California Anti-Japanese race riots occurred. 19
ca. 1907 Chicago, Illinois Residents of the Hyde Park area of Chicago began a campaign to remove all African-Americans from their neighborhood. They boycotted businesses who sold to African-Americans, and initially offered to buy them out of their homes. In the cases where that tack did not work, they began breaking the windows of the black residents who remained. Despite promoting the campaign for segregation openly in newsletters, the authorities never stepped in to stop the harassment. 52
late July 1908 Ocilla, Georgia The Georgia state militia had to be called in to prevent the lynching of four random African-Americans who had been grabbed up after a white woman claimed a black man had entered her hotel room. 37
late July 1908 Russelville, Kentucky One hundred white men broke into the local jail to lynch a black farmer who had allegedly killed his white landlord. Three other African-Americans were grabbed as well, and all four were hanged from a tree. The note the attackers left on one of the bodies read, "Let this be a warning to you niggers to let white people alone." 37
August 14-19, 1908 Springfield, Illinois Troops were called out to stop a race riot. It had been precipitated when the sheriff refused to let a crowd of over 1,000 whites lynch two men who had been arrested for sexual assaults. One man was lynched. The 84-year-old William Donnegan, had been Abraham Lincoln's personal butler. He was well-off and had been married to a white woman for 32 years. The mob slit his throat and dragged him across the grounds of the state capitol and lynched at a school. Then buildings were burned in the black section of town as the mob tried to drive blacks out causing hundreds of thousands of dollars' worth of damage. Perhaps more than seven blacks and four whites were killed. This incident helped lead to the founding of the NAACP. 7, 21, 30, 32, 37, 40, 46
1908 Marshall County, Kentucky Dr. Emelius Champion's band of Night Riders terrorized Birmingham, Kentucky. They began on January 20th with the whipping of a black man who rented a home where whites had previously lived. On March 9th, 150 armed men attacked the town. Two blacks were shot to death including a two-year-old boy. A dozen people both black and white were then taken down to the river. There they were forced to watch as five of them, four black men and one black woman, were brutally whipped. The African-Americans were told to leave town. Over the next week there were more incidents of shootings into black homes in the county and one man was shot to death. Two-thirds of blacks left the county as a result from 1900 to 1910. 21
January 1909 Boone County, Arkansas On the 17th a white woman was allegedly attacked and raped by a black man, though he never admitted to the crime. Despite being sentenced to death, whites were not appeased and they forced local blacks to leave. At least one account recalls a hanging as part of the instigation for them to leave. On January 28th one newspaper said that all but one older black had left town. The 1930 census showed not a single African-American in the county. 21
July 1910 Across US The Jack Johnson victory in a July 4th fight over "The Great White Hope" Jim Jeffries led to violence across the nation. In the fight's wake three black men were killed in Uvaldia, Georgia; two more blacks were killed in Little Rock, Arkansas; and a white deputy sheriff was killed in Mounds, Illinois. St. Louis police officers "clubbed a black mob into submission." Police stopped a lynching in Chicago. Whites attacked a black celebration parade in Columbus, Ohio. Houston saw several African-Americans assaulted immediately after the fight with one death. Other violence and disturbances were reported in dozens of cities and towns including New York City, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Kansas City, Atlanta, Charleston, Wilmington, Cincinatti, Los Angeles, and Fort Worth among others. Washingotn D.C. saw 250 people arrested and two hospitals filled with those injured. The Marines were called in to help stop the rioting in Norfolk,Virginia. In many cases it was blacks who had been cheering for Jack Johnson who were attacked. In Columbus, Ohio when blacks formed an impromptu victory parade, white mobs formed to stop the festivities. Because Johnson was famous, successful, had money, and importantly, because of his marriage to a white woman, he was targeted by the FBI and indicted for violating the Mann Act. He fled the country for seven years before returning and serving out his jail term. 36, 45, 48
July 29-31, 1910 Anderson and Houston Counties, Texas In the six months leading up to the "Slocum Massacre" there was a lynching every month in the East Texas region. A misunderstanding over black supervision of white workers led to unfounded rumors that blacks were having secret meetings and arming themselves. It didn't take long for whites to arm themselves in response to this non-existent threat and take action of their own by randomly attacking African-Americans. As many as two dozen victims were known to be dead, but dozens more were suspected. One white woman who was 15 years old at the time claimed her father and a group of white men killed 16 to 18 blacks and buried them in a mass grave. Her father then fled to Georgia for five years for fear of being caught. A Dr. Hayes heard the confession of two men who told him that they had dug a mass grave for 8 or 9 African-Americans and had placed them in it in Houston county. The African-American share of the poulation went from 30% in the 1910 census to 15% in the 1920 census. In the Denson Springs area where many blacks had lived, the African-American population dropped to 2%. The local newspaper, the Palestine Herald, ran a story on December 23rd of that year titled "Fewer Persons Slain by Mobs this Year. It mentioned six lynchings in Texas (already not a complete list) but did not mention anything about the Slocum Massacre. The author of this source claims that an estimate of hundreds dying is not unreasonable and that it is probably "the single, largest pogrom of blacks in modern American history." 36, 42
August 1, 1910 Dady, Florida Four African-Americans were lynched over the murder of a white child. One of the four was hanged from a tree and his body "shot almost to pieces." African-Americans were reported to be "fleeing for their lives" from that vicinity. 42
August to October, 1912 Forsyth and Dawson Counties, Georgia A lumber company had hired 4 blacks out of 154 new hires. This was too much competition however and whites shot into the tents of the four workers wounding two. They of course fled. Two rapes over the next couple of weeks reignited white anger. A black teenager admitted to the second rape and beating. He was taken to a jail 50 miles away for his safety. Another man arrested in connection was not given the same measures. A mob broke into the jail and lynched Rob Edwards, shooting and mutilating him. The night that the trial of the teen ended with a sentence of death, a black church in Dawson County was burned. Five churches in Forsyth County were burned and a black home dynamited shortly thereafter. Whites were told to fire their black employees and blacks were told to leave or die. The threats and violence also spread to other counties across northern Georgia. When the teen and another black were executed, in a county of almost 12,000, between 5,000 and 8,000 attended. Though blacks were 10% of Forsyth's population, they were forced to sell their property at a loss, or abandon it altogether and pack their things and go. Their land was appropriated by local whites. Forsyth's black population dropped by 97%, and none of Dawson's 152 blacks who were there in 1910 remained in 1920. 21, 29
April 17, 1915 Boston, Massachusetts The Birth of a Nation made its debut to protests in New York City on March 3rd. Many major cities refused to give the film viewing permits at least temporarily. When it debuted in Boston on April 17 though, a riot was kindled. Knowing about the racist depictions of blacks and the heroization of the Ku Klux Klan present throughout the film, some blacks bought tickets and threw eggsat the screenas the film showed. Stink bombs were also set off inside the theater as the film neared its ending. Approximately 500 blacks were outside the theater in protest. When blacks refused to leave the lobby after the film, police moved in using their nightsticks. This caused other blacks and whites to join in the melee, and the mayor had to send in 260 officers to quell the violence. At a public hearing the next day, 25,000 blacks called for the movieto be banned permanently, but the mayor banned it for all of one day. The Governor did initiate a bill to ban the movie in the state, but it was voted down. In November when the film debuted in Atlanta, they sold Klan hats and other paraphernalia inside the theater. 45
1915 Texas Mexicans in Texas led an uprising known as the Plan de San Diego. The Plan called for all prisoners to be "shot immediately without any pretext," and that "every stranger who shall be found armed...shall be summarily executed, regardless of his race or nationality." But also that "Every North American over sixteen years of age shall be put to death." In response, the Texas Rangers and Anglo ranchers went on a rampage hanging, shooting, and otherwise executing over 500 Mexicans. The event is remembered by Mexicans as "La Hora de Sangre," or The Hour of Blood. The Texas Legislature did investigate the killings in 1919, but no one was ever put on trial and extralegal killings of Mexicans continued into the 1920's. 24, 35
Late December 1915 to early January 1916 Blakely, Georgia Initially, the whipping of a black man by their white overseer, Henry Villipigue, led two African-Americans to murder him in revenge. Mobs lynched six blacks in response to that action. They also burned a church and about a half dozen lodge buildings. 42
Late January 1916 to early February 1916 Sylvester, Georgia Newspapers reported the lynching of sixteen people in a four-week period in the Slvester, Georgia area. Five were lynched in alleged retaliation for the killing of Sheriff Moreland of Lee County. Four of these victims were from the Felix Lake family. He and his three sons, Frank, Dewer, and Major were hanged. 42
August 19, 1916 Gainesville, Florida area Five blacks, two women and three men, were taken from jail and hanged from one oak tree in Newberry, Florida. Another black person was shot by deputy sheriffs near Jonesville, Florida. These lynchings occurred in the wake of the killing of Constable S.G. Wynne and wounding of Dr. L.G. Harris, by a black man named Boisey Long. The six were accused of helping Long to escape. 42
1916 Del Rio,Texas When a group of unarmed black soldiers were refused service at a brothel, they began pelting it with stones. The Texas Rangers were called in, and a short melee ensued in which one of the black soldiers was killed. Only the black soldiers were punished for the incident. 45
1917 to 1921 Chicago, Illinois Two African-Americans were killed during a wave of 58 firebombings of homes in border areas between white and black neighborhoods where blacks had recently moved in. About 30 of these bombings were concentrated in the 6 months leading up to the July 1919 race riot, one of the nation's worst ever in which 38 people were killed, 23 of them African-American. 52
July 1-3, 1917 East St. Louis, Illinois In an extremely violent "riot" (read: attack on the black population), thirty-nine blacks were killed that we can document. In addition, at least 150 black residents had been shot, hanged, burned, or maimed for life. Six thousand blacks were driven from their homes. Police joined the mob of white citizens in the attacks. Martial law was declared. Prior to the riot local newspapers had published the headline "Make East St. Louis a Lily White Town." On May 10th a labor dispute caused concern and shortly thereafter the Illinois National Guard was sent to East St. Louis to keep racial/labor violence from occurring, and for the most part did a good job of it. On May 28th after a labor meeting rumors circulated fo blacks attacking whites and an actual white mob formed to retaliate. Three blacks and three whites were shot, though none were killed, in the ensuing small riot. The National Guard was pulled two weeks later. On July 1st a car carrying armed whites drove through black areas and fired shots. When it came around a second time, a few blacks fired back at the car. Tragically, by the time an unmarked police car was sent out to investigate carrying seven passengers, almost two hundred blacks were armed and ready to protect themselves. Two of the passengers were killed. Seeing the bulet-riddled car the next day, whites immediately formed mobs and began attacking blacks on the sidewalks and on streetcars. The mobs then turned on black homes. People were forced to risk being torched in the arsons or to flee and be shot or worse by the mobs. When the National Guard returned, their performance was much more mixed. Many joined in the attacks on blacks. A congressional committee foundthat 312 buildings had been destroyed in the attack. Only nine whites served time in the state penitentiary for the attack, yet twelve blacks were also sentenced. About three thousand blacks had left east St. Louis by the next year. 3, 7, 34, 41, 45
August 23, 1917 Houston, Texas Two Houston police officers beat and arrested a Private Edwards of the all-Black Third Battalion of the 24th Infantry Regiment, after he had come to the defense of a black woman the two officers were abusing. Corporal Charles Baltimore approached the two officrs about the arrest and was beaten and shot in response, then arrested. One hundred of the black soldiers of the regiment then armed themselves and marched into town. A shoot-out ensued between the soldiers on one side, and police and armed civilians on the other. Four black soldiers and fifteen whites (including four policemen) lay dead at the end of the conflict. Another twelve whites were seriously wounded. This is one of the only race riots where more whites died than blacks. No lynchings occurred in the aftermath but the US executed nineteen soldiers by hanging, and sentenced fifty more to life imprisonment. One thousand local whites volunteered to serve on the posse, but were assigned to cordon off downtown Houston perhaps staving off even worse violence. In the case of thirteen of the men executed under court-martial, the normal review of the case had not even been finished before the sentence was carried out. 7, 30, 34, 45
1917 Texas City, Texas After a hurricane flooded the area, the local police and the National Guard rounded up African-american citizens of the town and forced them to clean up white neighborhoods.They stayed in a detention center for five days before being release to be able to attend to their own homes and families. 38
1917 to 1921 Chicago, Illinois Between 1917 and 1921, 58 homes that blacks had moved into, or were about to move into, were burned or bombed in attempts to keep blacks living solely in the crowded, impoverished tenements that already existed. 40, 41
February 12, 1918 Estill Springs, Tennessee Jim McIlherron, an African-American, was accused of killing two white men. He was lynched by being chained to a tree, tortured with hot irons, and then burned alive. Members of the black community were forced to watch. The black population of the town left shortly afterward not to return. 29
May 19, 1918 Unicoi County, Tennessee Tom Devert, an African-American, was murdered by a group of whites though there are varying accounts as to why. After his death in the town of Erwin though, armed whites gathered the town's fifty-plus blacks and forced them to watch as Devert's body was burned on a pyre of railroad ties. They were given one day to leave the county. Only four blacks remained in Unicoi County two years later. 21
May 1918 Brooks and Lowndes Counties, Georgia Sidney Johnson, an African-American, had his $30 gambling debt paid by a white man who according to law put Johnson to work as a on his farm to pay off his debt. The farmer required excessive work from Johnson for the debt and when Johnson finally feigned sickness to get out of the work the farmer came to his house and whipped him. Johnson returned to the farmer's house and shot through the window killing him and wounding his wife. During a week's manhunt for Sidney Johnson, eleven African-Americans were lynched, including one woman in her eighth month of pregnancy who was burned to death while hanging by her ankles from a tree, according to one source. Local newspaper accounts verify at least seven of these lynchings. 35, 42
July 25-28, 1918 Chester, Pennsylvania A race riot occurred in which five people were killed, three black and two white. After four black men allegedly killed a white man who was on his porch, rioting broke out for three days. Over 60 people were injured. 7, 45
July 26-29, 1918 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania About 60 people were injured and five killed in this race riot. Two white police officers and three blacks were the victims. It started after a mob of whites surrounded a black woman's home protesting her move into a mostly Italian neighborhood. The black woman fired two shots into the crowd, sparking the riot which lasted three days. 7, 45
1918 Springfield, Ohio Rumors of a black man attacking a white girl sparked this race riot with whites ravaging the black section of the city. 10
May 10-11, 1919 Charleston, South Carolina After shots were fired into the air to break up a fight, rumors circulated that a black man had shot at a white sailor. White sailors then acquired guns and began targeting blacks late that night. They robbed black businesses and damaged them. The mayor called in a detachment of Marines to strop the violence. But, three black men had already been killed and 18 wounded. Five white men had been injured during the rioting as well. The Navy investigation found that sailors were responsible for the riot, and two who had been involved in one of the murders were sentenced to a year in prison on Parris Island. 45
July 10-11, 1919 Longview, Texas A lynching that had been covered up in Longview, Texas was uncovered by the Chicago Defender. Whites went after the man they believed had reported the story to the newspaper and wounded him. Then they threatened to lynch both the accused man and the doctor who had treated him. The doctor organized a collective defense at his home among fellow blacks. When the mob returned, a gunbattle ensued. The next morning 1,000 whites returned to the home, but it had been abandoned, and they set it on fire. The mob then commenced to shooting four blacks dead and burning many other buildings down in the neighborhood. The entire county was placed under martial law and the National Guard and Texas Rangers moved in. Twenty-six whites and twenty-one blacks were arrested, but no one was ever tried for a crime. 45
July 19-23, 1919 Washington D.C. In a race riot, six people were killed and 100-150 wounded. Racial tensions flared due to two accounts of white women being attacked by black men. Before widespread arson of black neighborhoods could begin the Secretary of War brought in 2,000 Federal troops to patrol the streets. The paradox was that it was mostly soldiers and sailors who had begun the violence. 7, 16
July 27-31, 1919 Chicago, Illinois In one of the largest, most violent race riots in U.S. history over 530 people were injured, 342 of them black. Fifteen whites and twenty-three blacks were killed. Armed whites had driven in black neighborhoods shooting at anything and everything. Blacks retaliated against whites who worked in black neighborhoods. Nearly 1,000 black families were burned out of their homes. Militia units were necessary to put the riot down. Eugene Williams, a 14-year-old black male, was killed when whites threw rocks at him while he was swimming in Lake Michigan, and he had crossed the barrier segregating the beach. White youth gangs were instrumental in beginning the spead of violence around the city after the beach incident, but the eventual activity of both black and white mobs cmmitting violence made this riot unique at the time. 3, 7, 16, 19, 30, 45
August 31-September 2, 1919 Knoxville, Tennessee The murder of a 27-year-old white woman led to the immediate arrest of a black man, Maurice Mays, who was a business owner, well-educated, and known to associate with white women. He also was rumored to be the son of the white Democratic mayor. The next morning a crowd had already gathered outside the jail, and by 6pm there were 500 people there and 5,000 people in Market Square began to march on the jail. They broke into the jail a couple hours later, but Mays was gone, already shipped to another city for safekeeping. The mob freed all of the white prisoners, and left the black prisoners there, but did not harm any of them. The National Guard was called in and arrived at 10pm. The first 16 to arrive were beaten and had their uniforms and firearms taken by the mob. Knoxville's black population, meanwhile prepared for the worst and began to arm themselves. For a few hours the mob did attack the black district, and the residents fought back, but three companies of soldiers arrived to take control of the area. Over the next couple of days there was sporadic violence but it was kept somewhat in check. Mays returned to Knoxville for trial on September 25, and was twice sentenced to death by all-white juries while proclaiming his innocence. He was executed in the electric chair on March 15, 1922. 45
Late August and early September, 1919 Ocmulgee and Cordele, Georgia Eli Cooper, an African-American leader, was shot to death by a mob of whites who burst into his home. His body was then dragged to a black church, placed inside, and the church was burned down. The mob then burned down other black churches and a lodge. Cooper was said to be organizing farm laborers to demand better wages, but whites spread the rumor that he was trying to get blacks to exterminate whites in the area. In the nearby town of Cordele, four churches and three lodge buildings were burned shortly after the lynching of a returning African-American soldier, James Grant. Hundreds of African-American citizens were said to have fled the area in the wake of these events. 42
Summer 1919 Omaha, Alabama A black man, Will Brown was lynched, being shot reportedly over 1,000 times, and burned. The mayor who intervened attempting to stop the lynching was also hanged, and then the newly built courthouse was burned down. 7, 16, 42
Summer 1919 U.S. Twenty-one race riots occurred in the "Red Summer" of 1919. The Longview, Texas riot was the largest of those not otherwise referred to here on this table. 7
September 30-October, 1919 Elaine, Arkansas Sources vary greatly. One estimated five whites and 25 to 50 blacks, with mostly farmers and laborers, were killed in the "rioting". One white reporter claimed that whites massacred 856 blacks, and the NAACP estimated 250 were killed. The original interpretation of this event was as a Bolshevik insurrection by black farmers. As one commentator noted, the rebels were "subdued and hunted down, given quick trials, and several sentenced to death." The farmers were attempting to act as a union for better crop prices. The white backlash to their attempts at economic unity was obviously quite fierce. About one hundred black defendants went to trial and twelve were sentenced to death. Half of these were later reversed by the Arkansas Supreme Court. The remainder were released when the US Supreme Court granted them new trials and the state no longer wished to fight the issue. From April through August, black farmers had created union lodges throughout the area. Blacks became more assertive: refusing to pick cotton for white farmers at any price, not allowing their wives or daughters to pick cotton, negotiating their own individual price to be paid, etc. When union members began organizing themselves for self-defense,the usual rumors of an imminent black uprising began to circulate. The union hired white attorneys in Little Rock to negotiate fair settlements for them. The surprise appearance of law enforcement officials at a union meeting on September 30th led to a shooting incident that escalated into the reason for whites to crack down on the new economic threat that local blacks posed. By October 2nd, 580 soldiers went to Elaine which was already under martial law and joined in the fighting against blacks. Captured blacks were herded into stockades. One of the white lawyers for the union was arrested along with about 70 blacks at an organizational meeting and spent 31 days in jail before obtaining his release. He was nearly lynched and had to flee area under escort. While 79 blacks were sentenced for their roles in the "insurrection" not a single white person was even charged with a crime. The US Supreme Court case of Moore v. Dempsey (1923) found the trials of the "Elaine Twelve" to have been wholly unfair and prejudicial to the defendants, setting the precedent that a mob-dominated trial in a state court is invalid. The Twelve were finally freed 5 years after their initial arrests. 7, 19, 30, 32, 35, 45
1919 Georgia In this state alone, lynchings took the lives of 22 people during the year, most of whom were returning veterans of World War I. 35
1919 Chicago, Illinois "Scores of bombings" targeting real-estate agents who sold homes to blacks in white neighborhoods caused the deaths of two people, injured many others, and destroyed large amounts of property. White gangs also attacked blacks in parks and on the streets. 3
1919 Whitley and Laurel Counties, Kentucky In the town of Corbin, armed whites brought the town's African-Americans to the train station and packed at least two trainloads immediately out of town. In 1910 there were 60 blacks in Corbin and in 1920 only 3. Whitley County's population, where Corbin is located, dropped from 1,111 to 600 during that decade. Neighboring Laurel County's black population dropped from 657 to 333 over the same period, about 50%. The instigator of the riot was sentenced to two years in the state prison. 21
1920's US According to a study at the time by prominent sociologist Arthur Raper, half of all blacks killed by whites in the 1920's were murdered by police. 34
November 1920 Ocoee, Florida The black area of town was burned out and forced to leave. Six or more blacks were killed during the violence which began with a black man attempting to vote. 14, 41
January 1921 Gwinnett County, Georgia Six African-Americans visited a U.S. Attorney in Georgia to complain that they had been run out of their homes, or been "whitecapped." 38
January 1921 Hall County, Georgia African-Americans were run out of the northern part of the county over a two week period 38
February 1921 Jasper County, Georgia John S. Williams, a white farmer, bought a convict named "Iron John" in the spring of 1920. Williams' son Leroy shot "Iron John" (or "Iron Jaw") dead. Another leased convict, Gus Chapman escaped the plantation in November of that year and told the Dept.of Justice that story, as well as about two other murders. In February two federal agents visited Williams and saw that he had eleven forced laborers there, supervised by a black overseer, Clyde Manning. Knowing the situation was dire, in the days after the agents had left, Williams, aided by Manning and by Williams' sons, murdered all eleven of the convict laborers to keep from being prosecuted for slavery. Williams and Manning were both tried and convicted of the murders after bodies began to surface in the rivers of the county. Williams was the only man ever found guilty of killing a black man in Georgia from 1877 to 1966. He died in prison, ironically, trying to stop a prison break. Manning died on the chain gang sometime before 1930. 37, 38
June 1, 1921 Tulsa, Oklahoma In this battle of a race riot, blacks attempted to defend themselves but they were outmanned and outgunned by whites. There are multiple accounts of airplanes being used to bomb black areas of the city. While it is confirmed that planes were in the air that day, it is not confimed that they were actually engaged in bombing. Of the 39 death certificates analyzed by the Tulsa Race Riot Commission, all were male. Four were so badly burned that they could not be identified. Twenty-six were black, though the location of the four burned bodies makes them likely to be black as well. All victims except the four burned bodies had gunshot wounds listed as cause of death. Thirty-nine is surely not the total number of deaths associated with this event, but true totals will never be known. This total seems small when we consider that within 18 hours, over 1,000 buildings were completely burned out leaving about 9,000 people homeless. The New York Times ran with 85 deaths in its headline on the event. Other estimates went as high as 250 deaths. The precipitating event was an alleged assault on a 17-year-old elevator girl by an African-American, with the incident being sensationalized in the press. The Greenwood District of Tulsa was known as black Wall Street because it was the most prosperous black enclave in the country. White resentment played a massive role in the destruction of this community. No white Tulsans ever served prison time for their crimes. 7, 10, 16, 45
ca. July 16, 1921 Moultrie, Georgia A black man named Williams was given trial lasting only half an hour for an unknown crime and was being escorted by fifty armed guards from the courthouse when a mob of 500 whites rushed the guards to take their prisoner and they did not resist. Williams was taken by the mob, stripped, and castrated. He was then taken to a grove where he was chained to a stump and burned to death. The mob also beat a woman and her child, burned down colored churches, and terrorized black farmers by chasing them from their homes and tearing down their fences. 42
1921 Springfield, Ohio A race riot occurred, the third in the past two decades in the city. 10
December 14, 1922 Streetman, Texas According to the New York News, the town was known for "burning men at the stake" and supposedly had done that to three separate black men over the last three months. One of them may have been a man who was lynched there on December 11th. He was the uncle of a young man who was suspected of assaulting the sheriff's wife. When they could not find him, they lynched his uncle instead, though no method was listed in the Wilmington Advocate which reported that event. On December 14th a mob of about 1,500 overpowered the guards at the residence where 25-year-old George Gay was being held, and he was brought out to the highway and shot. He was accused by the mob of having attacked a young woman, though she did not claim the same when questioned by police. the mob then set fire to the streetman Hotel whcih was black-owned before being successfully dispersed by police. 42
late December, 1922 Perry, Florida After the murder of a white schoolteacher, a black man was burned alive at the stake, and two others murdered. The black church, school, and meeting hall were also burned. 14
January 1-7, 1923 Rosewood, Florida A white woman in the nearby town of Sumner claimed that a black man had raped her on January 1. A black escaped convict, was considered the main suspect. The posse that was formed to hunt him down followed their hounds to a home on the outskirts of Rosewood, an all-black community, where the homeowner was accused of aiding the fugitive. The sheriff intervened and brought the man to a jail in Gainesville, but white bands of men were already assembling throughout the county and on their way to seek "justice." They lynched one man to try to find out where the suspect was, hanging him and shooting him multiple times. By January 3rd Rosewood residents were huddled in their homes in fear. On January 4th a mob of 20-30 white men set out to Rosewood and battled at one home for an hour with the residents. Four white men were wounded and two killed in the attack in which they killed the woman of the house and then after running out of ammunition set fire to a church and several houses. Because they had deemed their lives worthy of self-defense against white men, whites were further enraged. On January 5th and 6th 200 whites went to the town and shot everyone in sight and completely burned out the entire town of Rosewood. Most blacks had managed to flee to the swamps, but there were somewhere between 6 and 27 killed in the attacks. The all-white grand jury found insufficient evidence to make any indictments. Rosewood was never rebuilt. At the time of the violence Cedar Key's population was over 37% black. As of 1996 it was one of only two 100% all-white cities in Florida. 14, 29
January 1923 Vermillion County, Indiana A 12-year-old girl was allegedly "mistreated, and then permitted to go home" by an African-American male. Blacks were immediately given a few days to leave if the perpetrator was not given up. Close to 3/4 of the black residents of the county left after the ultimatum according to the next census in 1930. The Horse Thief Detective Association of the time was a thin veil for the Ku Klux Klan to involve itself in law enforcement issues. The Sheriff, a secret Klan member, turned down state help from the governor and called in the Horse Thief Detective Association instead. 21
early August 1923 Yazoo City, Mississippi Within a week of Willie Minnifield being burned at the stake, it was reported that up to 10,000 African-Americans fled the Yazoo City vicinity. 42
September 15, 1923 Oklahoma The Governor declared martial law stating that due to Ku Klux Klan activity Oklahoma was in a "state of rebellion and insurrection." 7
September 26, 1923 Mitchell County, North Carolina The alleged rape of a white woman caused "scores" of men to begin search parties for the assailant. After hours of finding no one, they turned to driving out the areas black residents. They started with black miners, then were temporarily stopped by the sheriff and a deputy. The next day they evicted black sewer and water pipe laborers from town. By the time the Governor was able to send in the National Guard, most blacks had already been expelled from the town and the mob had dispersed. After the suspect had been caught his trial and sentencing to death in October lasted less than an hour. About 100 men from the mob were arrested by the governor's men for their role, but none ever went to trial. The Governor returned black workers to the town, but as soon as the National Guard was removed, the blacks fled before more violence occurred. 21
1924 Roanoke VA, Chicago IL, Indianapolis IN, and Kansas City MO Dynamite was hurled onto the roofs and porches of African-American homes. This was a new tactic in the lynching era. 35
1925 Detroit, Michigan Dr. Ossian Sweet was tried and acquitted for murder after firing into a crowd of hundreds of whites who had surrounded his home when he had moved into a white neighborhood. 9
Fall 1926 Miami, Florida Black residents were compelled to work under guard in order to clean up the white section of town after a hurricane. 38
1927 Mississippi Tens of thousands of African-Americans were held in detention camps guarded by the National Guard following a massive flood for months without being allowed to return to work and placing them further in debt to their employers. In Scott, Mississippi there were reports that up to 400 black men were abandoned to the flood atop a levee after women and children had been first evacuated. Others reported whites being rescued from levees while blacks were left. 38
1930's throughout the West and Southwest Close to half a million people of Mexican descent were forcibly deported during the Depression so whites could have their jobs. 19, 45
May 9-10, 1930 Sherman,Texas George Hughes, a black man, was on trial for an alleged rape when a mob of whites attacked the courthouse. The mob was repulsed three times by officers who used mostly clubs and fists, but they did also shoot two of the mob members. Hughes had been placed in a vault for safekeeping during the attacks. The mob being repulsed decided to set fire to the brand new courthouse and burned it down with Hughes dying inside. The Sheriff stated that he gave him the opportunity to run for his life or to stay in the vault and that Hughes chose the vault. The mob then burned down a drug store, three blocks of residences in the black section of town, and looted the area as well. Black residents of the area fled. 42
May 31, 1930 Chickasha, Oklahoma Henry Argo was in jail having been arrested for allegedly attacking a white woman. A mob of about 1,000 white men and boys attacked the jail multiple times attempting to brak him out in order to lynch him. The first wave was repulsed when deputies shot over the mobs head. They returned with battering rams and sledge hammers but the arrival of thirty National Guardsmen firing blanks repulsed them a second time. They did return a shower of bricks and bottles down on the Guardsmen. With the Guardsmen and deputies retreating to an upper floor, the mob lit mattresses on fire in a lower level and eventually smoked them out so that they were able to lynch Argo. He was shot in the head and stabbed twice. 42
1932 to 1972 Tuskegee, Alabama The US Public Health Service began its study on six hundred black farmers who were infected with syphilis. They were promised medical care, but they were given placebos to study the effects of the disease. Researchers theorized that the disease would bypass the "underdeveloped" black brains and attack the cardiovascular system instead, as opposed to the neurological damage that occurred in whites. The program was only stopped because the press broughy it to light. 48
June 14, 1932 Winnsboro, South Carolina A mob battled law enforcement at the courthouse in order to lynch an unnamed black prisoner. The prisoner was shot to death and Sheriff Hood was also killed in the melee. Six sheriff's deputies were also injured. 42
October 18, 1933 Princess Anne, Maryland A mob of about 3,000 overpowered fifty state troopers and deputies guarding the cell where George Armwood, who had attacked an elderly white women, was being held. They hanged Armwood in the front yard of a judge who had tried to calm the crowd and keep them from committing the lynching, then dragged his body for a half mile before throwing it onto a pyre. 42
November 29, 1933 St. Joseph, Missouri A mob of 10,000 gathered around the jail to break out a prisoner, Lloyd Warner, for lynching. Three National Guard tanks that were sent to the site were stopped by the mob, and the soldiers pulled out of them and beaten. Trucks used chains to pull the doors off of the jail. A second door inside was battered down before the sheriff agreed to give up Warner in exchange for the other prisoners' safety. The mob took Warner to a tree in the center of town where they soaked him in gasoline and burned him to death after a bungled hanging. 42
March 19-20, 1935 Harlem (New York City), New York A riot occurred mostly as the result of years of police abuses. The tipping-point incident was a rumor that a 14-year-old, Lino Rivera, had been killed by police after an arrest for shoplifting. The report of a special commission stated that "nothing revealed more strikingly the deep-seated resentments of the citizens of Harlem against exploitation and racial discrimination than their attitude toward police." This was one of the first "race riots" that was not characterized by wide-scale white violence against blacks, but by black rioters going after the property of whites. It was termed by some as an "economic revolt." Over 500 police officers tried to contain the disorder. 34, 45
1935 Mobile, Alabama Mobile's longshoremen, almost all black, went on strike and became subject to a "reign of terror" by the city's policemen. 45
May-June 1936 Earle, Arkansas Town Marshal Paul Peacher won a contract for clearing land. He rounded up nineteen local blacks on bogus charges of vagrancy and got them sentenced to thirty days of hard labor under his watch. Keeping them under armed guard in horrible conditions. Peacher was given a two year suspended sentence a $3,500 fine, and lost his marshal's badge for being convicted of enslaving the men. 38
June 18, 1936 El Campo, Texas A mob of about 300 people were kept by Texas Rangers from lynching nine African-Americans, five men and four women, who were being held in connection with a murder. They then burned down the cafe of a white man who had nothing to do with the murder. 42
August 6, 1941 Fort Bragg, North Carolina Two soldiers, a black private and a white MP, were shot to death during a fight on a bus between black and white soldiers. 7, 30
beginning December 1941 mainly throughout the West Coast and Hawaii The federal government placed 120,000 Americans of Japanese descent into internment camps. 45
February 28, 1942 Detroit, Michigan A race riot occurred at the Sojourner Truth Homes in Detroit when blacks moved into the homes there. A thousand whites barricaded the streets to protect the area with blacks fighting back. Of the 109 people held for trial only three were white, while of the 38 people hospitalized, 33 were African-Americans. The Klan and a U.S. congressman encouraged the white protests that ignited the riot. Officials did postpone the move-in indefinitely, but at the end of April, blacks were finally able to move into their homes. 7, 9, 10, 30, 45, 52
April 1942 Fort Dix, New Jersey Seven black soldiers were shot in an altercation over segregation of restaurants near the army base. Two of the soldiers died. 10, 30
1942-1946 West Coast and Hawaii About 111,000 Japanese were placed in internment camps as a threat to United States security during World War II. Many lost their homes and all of their belongings. 3, 19
May 25, 1943 Mobile, Alabama U.S. troops were needed to quell a race riot after black workers in a shipyard there had their job status upgraded. Trouble was expected and the Alabama militia had been placed in Mobile, and federal troops in the shipyard before the integration occurred. But, the violence spread rapidly throughtout the shipyard over the elevation of some black's workplace status. At least two blacks were thrown in the river, and hundreds fled the shipyard being chased by mobs of white workers numbering close to 4,000. They used bricks, pipes, hammers, and wrenches as weapons. Approximately 50 were injured, conservatively. White women joined their male working counterparts in the violence. White men spread throughout the town throwing rocks at black homes as well. The violence led to the temporary segregation of shipways in four cities during World War II. While giving in to white supremacy on some level, it also was a compromise that allowed black shipbuilders to hold every higher-skilled job in those shipways, creating greater opportunity for at least some African American workers. 7, 45
June 6, 1943 Los Angeles, California The Mexican Zoot Suit Riots occurred. Fourteen police officers created a "Vengeance Squad" and began randomly attacking Chicanos. Hundreds of white servicemen and tourists joined in convoys that attacked young Mexican-Americans and blacks labeled as gang members. Over 600 Chicanos were arrested but the "Vengeance Squad" explained that they were "letting off steam" and were given little punishement. 3, 7, 10, 19, 34, 45
June 15-16, 1943 Beaumont, Texas Tensions between blacks and whites ran high in Beaumont, exacerbated by war shortages, espionage rumors, overcrowding, and integration that had not occurred before. A Klan rally was scheduled in Beaumont for the end of June, and the annual Juneteenth celebration was to take place on June 19th. Rumors of an armed black revolt during this celebration spread. On June 5th the lynching of a black man by about 150 people was averted only because he had been shot by police and the crowd was told that he would soon die of his wounds. On June 15th, reports of a rape of a white woman who was the wife of a shipyard worker, led 2,000 shipyard workers to head for the jail where a suspect was in custody. Hundreds more joined them at the jail. Authorities claimed they had no suspect to give so the white mob attacked African-Americans and looted and destroyed black-owned buildings over the next fifteen hours. Three blacks and one white person were killed in the attacks. Fifty more people were injured. Martial law was declared for four days to settle the area down. The woman left town after the riot, the police having found no evidence of sexual assault. Approximately 2,000 African-Americans fled Beaumont in the riot's wake. 7, 45
June 20-22, 1943 Detroit, Michigan Thirty-four people died in this race riot, the worst of a horrible year for racially-related violence. Nine were white and the remainder black. The police had killed 17 of that total number, all black. The fighting started at Belle Isle Park. Federal troops were brought in to end the disturbances, but by then 760 people had been injured and almost 1,900 arrested, with over $2 million in property damage. Black and white youth playing cards at Belle Isle park began to scuffle, and fighting spread throughout the park. As people tried to leave more fights ensued with white sailors on leave joining in the fray. Rumors spread that evening among blacks and whites that a woman and baby of their own race had been thrown off the bridge. The next day mobs of blacks and whites gathered near Woodward Avenue to gain revenge. Police quickly could not handle the situation on their own. Police were told not to fire unless fired upon, yet in one incident they spent almost 1,000 rounds of ammunition at a black-occupied rooming house. Once federal troops arrived 72 hours after the riot began with bayonets fixed, they rounded up mobs and dispersed crowds within four hours. A Presidential proclamation authorizing the use of federal troops remained in place for six months in case rioting reared its ugly head again. 7, 9, 10, 34, 41, 45
August 1-2, 1943 Harlem, New York Thousands of blacks gathered to protest the killing of a black soldier, Robert Bandy, by police after he had come to the defense of a black woman who had been arrested. Unfortunately this was rumor and the soldier had only been injured. Blacks began looting white-owned businesses. In the end six blacks were killed during the riot and hundreds of others were injured. About 1,450 stores had been damaged or burned down. 7, 10, 34
June 1944 Brooklyn, New York Fifteen African-American youths pushed their way through the subways, insulted white passengers, and then shot a white man who confronted them. They were arrested. 10
late May 1944 Mobile, Alabama Black troops in Mobile at Brookley Field fired upon white military police who were investigating a robbery complaint had entered their segregated housing area. Just a few days later, rumors rumbled along that white workers would be attacking black workers when they launched the black-built ship Tule Canyon. 45
1944 Evansville, Indiana White soldiers were attacked by zoot suit-wearing blacks. 10
1944 Oakland, California A riot broke out around a Cab Calloway concert. In the wake of the incident, the Oakland Auditorium began a more official segregation of shows, and other places in Oakland, both entertainment venues and commercial shops, did as well in their respective areas. 4
"the immediate postwar period" Detroit, Michigan Detroit had over 200 reported acts of intimidation and violence meant to deter the desegregation of all-white neighborhoods. 52
ca. 1945 to 1950 Chicago, Illinois There were 357 reported incidents of harassment and violence targeting African-Americans after they had attempted to rent or buy in border areas between segregated neighborhoods in Chicago. A particularly violent wave lasted from mid-1944 to mid-1946 in which twenty-nine fire-bombings resulted in at least three deaths. 52
1945 to 1951 United States The Civil Rights Congress sent evidence to the United Nations Committee on Human Rights documenting 153 murders and 344 other violent, but non-fatal crimes against African-Americans. 40
February 26, 1946 Columbia, Tennessee Two people died and ten were injured in a race riot. White law enforcement and civilians destroyed the black commercial district of the town, but over 100 black men were arrested, 27 of them being charged with rioting and attempted murder. Future US Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall investigated the riot as a lawyer for the NAACP. Fearing he and his team would be lynched, they stayed in Nashville about 75 miles away. They did manage to receive acquittals for all but one defendant. 7, 45
August 10, 1946 Athens, Alabama From fifty to 100 African-Americans were injured in a race riot. 7
September 29, 1946 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania A race riot occurred. 7
1947 to 1965 Birmingham, Alabama Birmingham, Alabama was given the nickname "Bombingham," having at least fifty separate bombing incidents during the years from 1947 to 1965. Initially they were protecting housing segregation as blacks moved to the fringes of white neighborhoods, but then they began targeting civil rights leaders' homes and the centers where they worked. The most famous incident was of course the bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist church on Septemeber 4, 1963 which killed four young girls. In another cluster of attacks from 1957 to 1963, one neighborhood became known as Dynamite Hill. 45
1950 to 1965 Los Angeles, California Over 100 incidents of move-in bombings and vandalism against people attempting to desegregate all-white areas were reported. Only one of these incidents led to an arrest and a prosecution when the state got involved over the objections of local authorities. 52
June-July, 1951 Cicero, Illinois In the third week of June, police initially took the side of a small group of protesters and refused to allow a black family to move into an apratment in Cicero just one block over the Chicago line. The police chief himself threatened the real estate agent saying "Get out of Cicero....Don't come back...or you'll get a bullet through you." A mob of about 3,500 people attacked an apartment complex to keep a black family from moving in to the all-white city. They tried again on July 11th. At first about 100 women protesters showed up to heckle the family, but they managed to get into the house. A white supremacist handed out flyers saying "KEEP CICERO WHITE" and the crowds grew larger and more agitated. The family fled. Within an hour the crowd destroyed everything in the apartment. The following day the mob grew to about 4,000. They turned over police cars and firebombed the building. The National Guard was called upon to prevent violence. It took four hours to contain the mob that night, but rioting occurred over the next three nights as well. A total of 118 people were arrested. None were indicted. Furthermore, a grand jury indicted the black family and the real-estate agent and building owner with conspiracy to lower real estate prices, and with inciting a riot. As of 1980 only 0.1 percent of Cicero's residents were black. In 2000 it was still only 1% black. 7, 10, 41, 52
1952 Richmond, California A white mob of about 300 gathered outside the home of an African-American family who had just integrated a white neightborhood. They burned a cross on the lawn, threw a brick through the front window, and screamed vulgarities at the family. For days the police did nothing, so the family had to get guards from the local NAACP to protect them and escort them to and from work and school. Eventually the Governor and Attorney General forced the local authorities to provide protection for the family, but the crowds stayed outside the home for almost a month because the police never arrested a single person. 52
January 1952 Cairo, Illinois One hundred black parents attempted to enroll their children in an all-white school. Whites reacted with cross burnings, a bombing, and other violence against prominent blacks. Many of the leaders of the push for integration were arrested for conspiracy by town officials. Nonetheless, in the fall the schools were integrated following state law. 10
1953 to 1963 Chicago, Illinois The Chicago Housing Authority attempted to desegregate the Trumbull Park project in the all-white nighborhood of South Deering. For the next ten years police protection was required for the families, with as many as 1200 officers deployed on the day a number of families moved in. Sporadic mob violence occurred throughout the period. A few bomb-throwers were arrested during the period but faced only minor charges. The Chicago Park District Police Chief told the South Deering Improvement Association during a meeting that "it is unfortunate the colored people chose to come out here." 52
1953 throughout the U.S. "Operation Wetback" forcibly deported more than a million Mexican workers while also forcing millions of U.S. citizens of Mexican heritage to arrests and illegal searches and seizures. 28
1953 and 1954 Chicago, Illinois Chicago's Trumbull Park Homes in Deering Park was the site of riots when blacks attempted to move into public housing. The Chicago Housing Authority accidentally integrated the homes by accepting the application of a light-skinned woman. Violence continued throughout the 1950s keeping only but token integration from happening in the area. 45
first six months of 1955 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania An astonishing 213 documented incidents of violence occurred in the first six months of 1955 intending to keep African-Americans confined to their segregated North Philadelphia neighborhoods ranging from teenage gangs patrolling neighborhood boundaries to mobs harassing and initimidating those attempting to desegregate all-white neighborhoods. 52
April 1955 Detroit, Michigan For months after a black family moved into a home in a white neighborhood the house was under constant assault. Initially, hundreds of whites picketed outside and shouted verbal abuse. After "police protection" was provided the crowds subsided, but attacks continued in the forms of being pelted with paint and eggs, windows being broken, the lawn salted, and snakes placed in the basement. They finally moved due to the stress on their five-year-old son. In the postwar period to the 1960's there were over 200 incidents of white Detroiters harassing, demonstrating, and attacking the homes of blacks who moved into all-white neighborhoods. The incidents peaked between 1954 and 1957, and then again in 1963 when 65 incidents were reported. 9
early February 1956 Tuscaloosa, Alabama After Autherine Lucy was admitted to the University, the ensuing riot was used as an excuse to expel her from the school. 7
August 30, 1956 Mansfield, Texas A large group of whites prevented the enrollment of African-American students to Mansfield High School. 7
1957 Levittown, Pennsylvania After an African-American family moved into a segregated white neighborhood, the postal carrier shouted "Niggers have moved into Levittown!" as he made his rounds. He was never disciplined. A mob of up to 600 people responded to the racist Paul Revere's call. Gathered at the house they screamed, and pelted the family and home with rocks. Some of the mob rented a unit next door where they flew the Confederate flag and blasted music during the night. Local police refused to show up. In their stead came the State Police who did nothing other than have a presence there. They made no arrests. A sergeant was even demoted for objecting to orders NOT to interfere with the rioters. Even during the two months that the troopers were there crosses were burned, KKK symbols were painted and rocks were thrown. After four years of continual harassment, the family finally moved back to the segregated neighborhood they had come from in York. 52
July-August 1957 Chicago, Illinois Over the course of three weeks white gangs attacked blacks attempting to use the Calumet Park. Police did not defend blacks during the violence. On one occasion about 150 white youths injured around thirty blacks picnicing in the park and broke 25 car windows. 10
February 23, 1960 Chattanooga, Tennessee A race riot occurred at a sit-in demonstration. 7
March 8, 1960 Montgomery, Alabama Police broke up a protest demonstration at Alabama State. Thirty-five students were arrested along with one teacher and her spouse. 7
March 12, 1960 Tallahassee, Florida Police broke up a student protest with tear gas. 7
April 24, 1960 Biloxi Beach, Mississippi Despite the fact that a law passed by Mississippi's state senate made segregation at state beaches illegal, in order that they could obtain federal funding to build Biloxi Beach's recreational area, local police harassed Dr. Gilbert Mason in his attempts to desegregate the beach arresting him on April 17th, 1960 for his attempt. Locals rallied to Mason's side and about 100 black men, women, and children attempted to hold a "wade-in." They were met there by a mob of whites who attacked them when they tried to enter the water. Local police monitored traffic as they allowed the mob to continue attacking the completely legal swimmers. Violence spread throughout the town as mobs of whites began assalting black pedestrians. four blacks, including three women were injured by gunfire. Whites attempted to burn down Dr. Mason's medical office but a group of blacks exchanged gunfire with the wounding two would-be arsonists. Police arrested 22 blacks and two whites that day and night. The NAACP filed a lawsuit against city and county officials to desegregate the beach, which it finally achieved legally in 1972, though in practice officials had allowed it to be desegregated sometime in the mid-1960s. 45
January 11, 1961 Athens, Georgia A riot occurred at the Universtiy of Georgia. 7
May 21-22, 1961 Montgomery, Alabama At a press conference called by Reverend Matrtin Luther King, Jr. at a church led by Reverend Ralph Abernathy, hundreds of people had gathered outside, black and white. US Marshals arrived. Whites flipped one of their vehicles adn set it on fire. Cars began to turn over everywhere. Smoke bombs were thrown. Highway patrolmen, sheriff's deputies, firemen, and National Guardsmen were all brought in to disperse crowds. Gang fights between blacks and whites spread across the city. Bricks and bottles were thrown at US Marshals, whom local authorities blamed for sparking the Saturday event. They blamed rowdy teenagers for the smaller but still violent sunday night recurrence. 42, 45
December 15, 1961 Baton Rouge, Louisiana A demonstration by about 1,500 blacks was squashed using tear gas and police dogs. 7
September 30, 1962 Oxford, Mississippi Students rioted at the Univesity of Mississippi repeatedly attacking Federal marshals over the university's integration, by James Meredith, injuring 160 of them. Over 200 rioters were injured. Dozens of automobiles were destroyed. Two people, a journalist and an innocent bystander, were killed in the melees. The riot became worse when the Mississippi State Troopers were ordered off of the scene by state officials. Three thousand National Guardsmen were federaized to calm the violence down. About 300 soldiers remained stationed at the university for a year to insure the peace. 7, 19, 20, 45
May 1-2, 1963 Birmingham, Alabama A children's march of about 6,000 took place as the second day of protests during which the city's police forces under Sheriff "Bull" Connor used high pressure fire hoses, clubs, and police dogs against the children while on national television. Over 950 children were arrested and jailed. 19, 45
May 11-12, 1963 Birmingham, Alabama African-Americans rioted for about three hours after the bombing of an integration leader's home, and the bombing of a motel owned by a black businessman. 7, 11
June 15, 1963 Jackson, Mississippi After Medgar Evers' funeral, several hundred youths began protesting in the streets. Riot police were sent to the scene where they were pelted by the protesters with bricks, stones, and bottles. A US Department of Justice official, addressing the crowd was able to calm them and keep the violence from escalating any further. 45
mid-1963 Plaquemines, Louisiana Approximately 900 Civil Rights marchers were tear-gassed and clubbed. Over 400 were arested and about 150 hospitalized. 19
mid-June 1963 Harlem, New York A crowd of about one thousand protesting the arrest of an unlicensed ice cream vendor began violence against property and clashes with police. Twenty-seven people were arrested. 10
July 12, 1963 Cambridge, Maryland National Guard troops clamped down in virtual martial law to stop confrontations between white segregationists and black demonstrators. 7, 11
September 1963 Comstock, New York Comstock Prison had segregated job assignments. Black prisoners had menial jobs like dishwashers and could not get any of the skilled jobs to learn a trade. Of the 1,800 prisoners there, 1,300 were black. Lumumba Shakur and Sekou Odinga and about a dozen others, when their appeals to the authorities got nowhere, rioted with about 450 prisoners. The leaders of the riot were all sent to Attica, but Comstock did change its policy with every trade in the prison being assigned black inmates as well. 39
October 1963 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania When police shot to death Willie Philyaw, a 24 year-old black, young blacks began looting stores and throwing bricks at police cars 10, 11
1963 Chicago, Illinois Disorder involving blacks and whites occurred. 11
1963 Savannah, Georgia Disorder involving blacks and whites occurred. 11
February 7, 1964 Jackson, Mississippi Three hundred police officers were sent to Jackson State College when a mistrial was declared in the case of Byron de la Beckwith who had assassinated Medgar Evers. Police fired into one group of non-violent protesters injuring five people. 45
Spring 1964 Jacksonville, Florida An African-American woman was shot and killed from a passing car. A bomb threat then forced an all-black high school to evacuate, and the students to stone police officers and firemen. they also used Molotov cocktails and burned the vehicles of reporting newsmen. 11
Spring 1964 Cleveland, Ohio After a white minister who was part of a Civil Rights demonstration was killed by a bulldozer, police moved in to disperse a crowd of blacks who had gathered. Violence erupted. 11
Summer 1964 Mississippi During the Freedom Summer in Mississippi, 6 civil rights workers were killed, 35 more were shot at, 80 were beaten, thirty-one homes and thirty-seven churches were bombed, and over 1,000 civil rights workers were arrested. 45
late June 1964 St. Augustine, Florida White segregationists forced their way through police lines and attacked Civil Rights demonstrators. 11
July 16-22, 1964 Harlem and Bedford-Stuyvesant (Brooklyn), New York The riot began over the shooting death of junior high school student Jimmy Powell. He attacked an officer with a knife after he had a confrontation with a white building superintendent. The officer shot 15 year-old Powell. The riot lasted for several days spreading from Harlem to Bedford-Stuyvesant. Many blacks looted Jewish-owned stores, and battled with police in the streets. On the 16th, hundreds of youths threw bottles and cans at police officers in the Yorkville neighborhood. On the 19th thousands of teenagers began attacking police officers, and looting and burning. Approximately 4,000 Harlem residents and 4,000 Brooklyn residents were involved. Over 100 peole were injured and 465 were arrested. 3, 7, 10, 11, 45
July 25, 1964 Rochester, New York A Civil Rights protest at the local Kodak plant was cracked down on by police leading to clashes with police, looting, and the burning of buildings. 7, 10, 11
August 2-4, 1964 Jersey City, New Jersey The riot in Jersey City may havebeen sparked by the arrest of a black woman on disorderly conduct charge. On the first night of the disturbance, about 800 people looted stores, threw rocks and stones, and attempted to pull people out of their cars. By the third night 400 police officers had been called in and a large group of black clergymen also took to the streets with bullhornsencouraging peole to stop rioting. At least 46 people were injured, 52 were arrested, and 71 businesses were damaged. 7, 11, 45
early August 1964 Elizabeth and Paterson, New Jersey Disorders took place. 11
August 15, 1964 Chicago, Illinois A black woman was arrested for stealing from a white-owned liquor store. The owner was accused of manhandling her and blacks gathered at the store breaking the window. Police dispersed the crowd but the next day the store was lit on fire with a Molotov cocktail and several people were injured. 11, 45
August 1964 Tougaloo College, Mississippi A three-day summit of Civil Rights' activists at the College precipitated a riot among angry whites in which 52 people were attacked and beaten by them and 250 people were arrested. 45
late Summer 1964 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Police arrested a belligerent African-American woman because two police officers attempted to move her family's car. The police and spectators that came to the scene escalated the incident into two nights of rioting. 11
1964 to 1969 United States More than 400 race riots/rebellions exploded across the United States, mostly in large, industrial cities. Approximately thirty percent of these were in direct response to Dr. Martin Luther King's assassination. The riots from 1965-1967 are also collectively known as the Long Hot Summer Riots, of which Watts, Newark and Detroit were the most devastating. Unlike most previous riots in which whites sought to kill blacks, blacks turned their anger mostly against property. Some whites were attacked, but killing them during these riots was very rare. Most deaths were caused by law enforcement trying to regain civil order. Blacks most often set fire to black neighborhoods and businesses. Unlike white riots, participants were often arrested, charged, and convicted. 40, 45
1965 to 1980 United States As many as 2,300 US citizens, many of whom were John Birch Society members or neo-Nazis, traveled to the country of Rhodesia as mercenaries in order to defend the white minority-rule government there. The country then modeled its elite units on US Special Forces. 51
February 18, 1965 Marion, Alabama A peaceful voting rights demonstration of about 500 people was attacked by Alabama State Troopers and a white mob. In attempting to assist his mother, who was being clubbed, Jimmie Lee Jackson was shot in the stomach and killed. Ten others were hospitalized and many were jailed. No action was taken against the trooper who killed Jackson. 45
March 7, 1965 Selma, Alabama City police and state troopers attacked a peaceful Civil Rights demonstration of about 600 injuring numerous participants in the incident known as "Bloody Sunday." The marchers, approaching the Edmund Pettis Bridge, were attacked with clubs, whips, and tear gas. Now Representative John Lewis is the most famous person attacked in the incident having his bloodied head shown in some iconic photographs. The television footage of the event helped lead to the passage fo the Voting Rights Act of 1965. On March 21, 4,000 marchers set off from Selma to finish the march. by the time they reached Montgomery there were 25,000 people marching. Other incidences of violence followed the marhc including the shooting death of Viola Luizzo by the Ku Klux Klan. 11, 19, 45, 50
August 11-15, 1965 Los Angeles Black residents in the Watts area of Los Angeles rioted after the arrest of a speeding, possibly drunk black driver. Crowds and police gathered. A few incidents inflamed the crowd and when the police left they began beating white motorists and burning cars. Things died down for another day but then escalated into the worst riot since Detroit in 1943. Firebombings targeted white-owned businesses and the National Guard used firearms with little restraint. When it was over about 3,400 people had been arrested, 1,032 had been injured, and thirty-four (almost all black) had been killed. In addition there was $35-40 million in property damage and the rebellion/rioting had covered an area of over 46 square miles. From January 1962 to July 1965, leading up to the rebellion/rioting, LAPD had killed at least 65 people. Of the 65 that the LA coroner had examined, 27 were shot in the back, 25 were unarmed, and four were not even involved in a crime at the time of the shooting. Sixty-four out of the sixty-five were ruled to be justified homicide. The first night of the riot was contained in an eight-block area but still 50 cars were burned or badly damaged. Nineteen officers were injured along with 16 civilians. The violence died down the next morning but by 6pm 2,000 people had again gathered and started rioting. Molotov cocktails and gasoline bombs began to be thrown. Firefighters were attacked. Five hundred officers again quieted the disturbance for some time late that night, but the National guard waas called for 1,000 troops anyway. By 9am the next day, Friday, things spiraled out of control again. By Saturday @ midnight 14,000 Guardsmen were on the streets. The curfew imposed Saturday night was removed on Tuesday and by then the fire of the riot's anger had burned out. Among the injured were 136 firemen and 90 police officers. 10, 11, 34, 39, 45
1965 Chicago, Illinois A riot occurred among blacks in the city. 10, 11
1965 Cleveland, Ohio The "Murray Hill Riot" was an early busing incident where the mostly Italian-American neighborhood responded to the busing of African American students to a building that was not at full capacity in Murray Hill. 45
July 11-15, 1966 Chicago, Illinois Black youths clashed with Chicago police leading to several days of battles after a fire truck had killed a black woman in an accident. Blacks gathered to protest the all-white local fire station. Rock throwing and looting began with 533 people eventually being arrested. Over 500 were injured, and three African-Americans died of gunshot wounds from stray bullets. Among the dead were a 13-year-old boy and a 14-year-old pregnant girl. 10, 11
July 18-31 1966 Cleveland, Ohio Four nights of rioting occurred in which four blacks were killed. Two died at the hands of police officers, another was shot by a white driver in a passing car, and the last by a gang of white youths. The National Guard was brought in to quell the violence, and the almost 2,000 troops did not leave until July 31. There was over $1 million in property damage. A couple of incidents at a white-owned bar between the owner and black patrons, led to him posting a sign on his door that said "No water for Niggers." Angry neighborhood residents gathered outside and the police were called. The riot quickly ensued. 10, 11, 45, 49
September 1, 1966 Dayton, Ohio A truck with three white men committed a drive-by shooting killing 39-year-old African American Lester Mitchell as he was sweeping the front sidewalk of his home. Rioting occurred immediately with 225 Dayton officers and 1,000 National guard troops needed to ameliorate the situation after about 24 hours. One person died and thirty were injured in the riot. There were 130 arrests. 45
September 12, 1966 Grenada, Mississippi A mob challenging the integration of a school whipped, beat, and clubbed the children upon leaving school after the first day of class. Thirteen year-old Richard Sigh's leg was broken by the mob as he was beaten with clubs. About thirty children were injured. 7
September 27, 1966 San Francisco, California Matthew Johnson, 16, and friends had stolen a car and were driving around when confronted with police. The youths fled on foot and the police shot Johnson in the back. He died, bleeding out, after more than an hour of waiting for an ambulance. Rioting erupted in the city for several days. Thirty-one police cars and ten fire trucks were destroyed or damaged. Almost 150 people were arrested, 42 of whom the police had injured, 10 of whom had been shot. 39
Mid-October 1966 Oakland, California The alleged beating ofa black girl by police during the arrest of her brother sparked a small riot over a ten block area where cars were attacked, windows wey arrested twelve people. 39
May 9-10, 1967 Jackson, Mississippi Students at historically black Jackson State College interfered with the arrest of a driver on campus by two black police officers. Police reinforcements came and hundreds of spectators gathered. Rocks were thrown that evening, but an even larger crowd gathered the following night and police used gunfire to disperse them. Three people were shot and one, a young African-American, died. The National Guard was called in to restore calm. 11
May 16, 1967 Houston, Texas At Texas Southern University, an historically black college, a dispute amongst protesters led to the calling of police. When they made an arrest onsite, gunfire came from a dormitory. Reinforcements came, rocks and bottles were thrown, and sporadic gunfire continued. Eventually the police stormed the dormitory and one officer was killed by a ricocheting bullet. 11
June 3, 1967 Boston, Massachusetts A dozen demonstrators known as the Mothers for Adequate Welfare locked themselves inside a welfare office along with ten policemen and 20 social workers after the women had read a list of demands. Crowds gathered and when police finally opened the building to get everyone out they were barraged with stones and bottles by the crowds. Black ministers helped to calm down the area immediately around the welfare office, but the crowds spread out smashing the windows of police cars, burning homes and stores. More than thirty people were arrested, dozens of citizens and at least thirty policemen were injured. 45
June 11, 1967 Tampa, Florida A police officer shot a black youth. Rumors spread that the boy had his hands in the air with his back to the officer when he was shot and angry crowds gathered. The ambulance got lost and eventually the officer loaded the boy into his car to take him to the hospital but he died soon after. Rocks began to be thrown and stores to be looted and a few burned. Police and community leaders were able to keep the violence to a minimum compared to other riots of the era. 11
June 12-14, 1967 Cincinnati, Ohio The riots were partially sparked by the arrest of a black jazz musician which was taken as yet another example of the police harassment the community had dealt with for years. Black youth began interfering with deliveries made by white drivers to the city. Crowds gathered at the protest meeting for the arrest and things got tense with youths throwing rocks and breaking windows afterward. Some looting and burning began. Another contributing spark of police harassment was the arrest of a dozen blacks for vandalism for which they received the maximum sentence the very next day.When the National Guard arrived the intensity of incidents quickly dropped. But one white motorist had been killed by a gunshot and 2 others injured by gunfire. Sixty-three total people were injured, 56 of them white. Over 400 were arrested. 11, 45
June 17-20, 1967 Atlanta, Georgia A couple of police incidents at the Dixie Hills Shopping Center involving black youth riled the community, which in an untimely coincidence hosted Stokely Carmichael in a speech that night and he urged blacks to "take to the streets." Crowds gathered after the speech and rocks and bottles were thrown at police on the scene. The officers fired over the heads of the crowd to regain control. A few days later, after more standoffs, 300 police officers confronted 200 protesters after another meeting. When a cherry bomb was thrown at police some of the officers, mostly black, began firing into the crowd. One man was killed and a young boy was critically injured. City improvements that had been planned were put into effect the next day, and a black youth patrol began working as well, which quelled any further violence. 11, 45
June 26 to July 1, 1967 Buffalo, New York This riot started off as teenaged boys vandalizing stores and automobiles, but it escalated in the Long, Hot Summer atmosphere to a dangerous riot. Initially, 200 police officers were called in, but violence intensified with police clashes leaving three police officers, one firefighter, and several black civilians injured. Four hundred more police officers were called in and though forty people were injured overall the riot finally subsided. 45
July 8-17, 1967 Newark, New Jersey On the 8th there was a clash between Black Muslims and police with numerous charges and counter-charges. On the 12th a crowd gathered in response to reports of a black cab driver being beaten by police. Molotov cocktails were thrown at the police station and the protesters' march broke down under police attempts at dispersal. Some minor looting occured. The next night the same scene repeated itself, but this time the dispersal was not successful. Arsons, looting, and gunshots spread throughout the area and the National guard was called in. By the end of the 17th, 23 persons had been killed. Twenty-one of them were black including six women, two children, and a 73-year-old man. National Guardsmen and State Police had expended 13,326 rounds of ammunition in the heavy three-day period of rioting. 11, 39
July 17-18, 1967 Jersey City, New Jersey "Mass arrests" were made when crowds gathered and threw rocks. One black man died when a black youth threw a Molotov cocktail into the cab in which he was riding. 11
July 16-21, 1967 Plainfield, New Jersey A confrontation between a lone police officer and a black man ended with the man being shot at multiple times, and then a gang of black youths beating to death the officer. The ghetto area was cordoned off and fearful blacks began to arm themselves. The National Guard only went in to the area to rescue people as in the case of a fire station that was beseiged with gunfire. While it lasted for days, no major looting or arsons occured compared to other riots of the time. 11
July 23-28, 1967 Detroit, Michigan Police decided to arrest all 82 people at a "blind pig." Crowds gathered immediately and eventually began throwing bottles at the police. As crowds swelled the riot created far more chaos, with looting spreading rapidly due to slow initial police response. After five days of violence it had taken 17,000 police and soldiers to stamp out the disturbance. The National Guard troops had been ordered to "shoot any person seen looting." Hundreds of reports of sniper fire had poured into the police stations. Forty-three people died, thirty at the hands of law enforcment officials. Thirty-three of the dead were black. Over 7,000 people were arrested, almost 1,200 were wounded and over $36 million in insurance damages were logged, 552 buildings damaged or destroyed by fires. This riot was unique in that it was primarily a battle between working-class African Americans on one side, and the police, National Guard, and the US Army on the other. The most dramatic incident of the riot, now depicted in the movie Detroit, took place at the Algiers Motel. Three black teens who were with two white prostitutes were shot by police officers during a raid there. The officers were indicted but acquitted by an all-white jury in 1970. Two of the officers re-joined the police force in 1971. White flight accelerated post-riot and the first black mayor of Detroit was elected in 1973. 9, 11, 34, 39, 45
July 24, 1967 Cambridge, Maryland H. Rap Brown gave a speech in which he urged people to "meet violence with violence," and that "if this town don't come around, this town should be burned down." Just hours later the city was amidst the flames of a riot. 45
1967 United States The Kerner Commission reported that in the first nine months alone of 1967, that 164 riots/urban rebellions had occurred. 39
unspecified period leading up to 1968 Detroit, Michigan The Michigan Civil Rights Commission reported that "our experience has been that nearly all attempts by black families to move to Detroit's suburbs have been met with harassment." 52
1968 Camp Lejeune, North Carolina A series of violent clashes occurred between white and black Marines. Authorities did not intervene until after the death of a white Marine. 51
March 28, 1968 Memphis, Tennessee Violence occurred during a march in support of a strike by city garbage collectors led by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. One black teenager was killed, 62 people were injured, and over 200 were arrested. Afterward President Lyndon Johnson called for an end to rioting in a national speech. The strike and march was the reason Martin Luther King, Jr. was in Memphis when he was assassinated on April 4th. Tragically, this set off one of the largest waves of rioting this country has ever seen. 45
April 4-11, 1968 United States Following the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. on April 4th in Memphis, Tennessee, the city broke out into rioting/rebellion. Over the next three weeks, this occurred in over 125 cities in 28 states across the US. Especially large events devastated black neighborhoods in Baltimore, Chicago, and Washington D.C. Across the country 44,000 National Guardsman were deployed,over 21,000 people were arrested, and forty-six people were killed. Demonstrations at many high schools and universities, also often leading to disorders took place. 39, 45
April 6-9, 1968 Baltimore, Maryland The rioting in the wake of Dr. King's assassination required 6,000 National Guardsman to aid the city's 1,100 police officers. Over 700 people were injured, over 5,000 arrested, and over 1,000 fires were reported. 45
April 8, 1968 Cincinatti, Ohio Immediately after a peaceful memorial service for Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., there was an accidental shooting of a black woman by her husband. Rumors swirling turned the incident into the shooting of a black woman by a white police officer. A riot quickly engulfed the city leaving two people dead and over $3 million in property damage. Hundreds were arrested. 45
April 1968 Washington D.C. The rioting in the wake of Dr. King's assassination resulted in 9 deaths, 1,202 injuries, and 6,306 arrests. 45
April 1968 Chicago, Illinois The rioting in the wake of Dr. King's assassination left over 500 injured and about 3,000 arrested. One hundred sixty-two buildings were completely destroyed by fire and $9 milllion in property damage was estimated. 45
September 4, 1968 Brooklyn, New York At a hearing for three Black Panthers, 150 whites, including many off-duty police officers as verified by the Mayor, packed the Brooklyn Criminal Court and attacked Black Panthers supporters (black and white) with blackjacks as they went to the elevators to exit the building. At least one victim suffered a fractured skull and several others were bloodied. 39
1968 Cleveland, Ohio Police and members of New Libya, a black nationalist group, engaged in a gun battle that led to five days of rioting in which three police officers were killed. 49
1968 to 1969 across the U.S. Twenty-eight Black Panther Party members were killed by police, and about 750 were arrested or jailed in 1969. From 1967 to 1971, of 295 actions initiated by the FBI's COINTELPRO, 233 of them targeted the Black Panther Party. 19, 34, 39
January 1969 San Francisco, California Latino and black students at Mission High School went on strike to try to bring cultural studies to the school with the support of many parents and community activists. The police tactical squad was sent in, students were beaten, and nearly three hundred people were arrested. 39
February 8, 1969 Madison, Wisconsin A few hundred students who were picketing for the creation of a black studies department, increased to about 2,000 students when the Mayor of Madison called in the National Guard to quell it. The Guard began using tear gas to disperse the students and the crowd grew to 10,000 which then marched on the Capitol carrying lit torches. 39
May 1, 1969 San Francisco,California Two undercover police officers approached a group of Latino youths. One officer who had been drinking called them "wetbacks" and insults were traded escalating into a fight where one of the officers was shot and killed. The police immediately charged seven Latino activists with first degree murder and asked for the death penalty despite the fact that four of them were nowhere near the scene of this incident. They then raided over 150 homes looking for their seven suspects. These seven had been active in trying to gain a Third World studies program at the College of San Mateo. 39
May 21, 1969 Greensboro, North Carolina At the all-black Dudley High School, a candidate for student president with a Black Power platform was left off the ballot completely. Students protested and police began arresting people. Students then took over several buildings at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University for two days. The National Guard brought in tanks and sharpshooters and students engaged in a shootout with the police and Guard. Student Willie B. Grimes was killed and many more were injured. Five police officers were shot. Hundreds of students were arrested. 39
June 15, 1969 Sacramento, California Police tried to break up a large crowd across the street from a Black Panther office. People resisted and began to throw rocks and bottles at the police. The police responded with mace and beatings. Many people retreated to the Black Panther office at which the police fired dozens of shots which were returned by the Panthers, and then the office was ransacked upon its evacuation. Fifteen people, including many police, had gunshot wounds. Thirty-seven people were arrested, including several Panthers whom the police beat while in jail. 39
December 8, 1969 Los Angeles, California Three Black Panther buildings in Los Angeles were raided simultaneously at 5am. At one home, they knocked down the door, shot up the house and arrested everyone inside including two children, eight years, and eight months. At a community Center they shot up the building and arrested everyone inside. At the Panthers headquarters the Panthers resisted the initial raid by 75 police officers fiercely. Hundreds of police reinforcements were sent in, including one of the very first actions of the newly-minted SWAT team. The Panthers returned fire and lobbed Molotov cocktails at police. An attempt by police to dynamite the roof was unsuccessful. Five thousand rounds were fired at the headquarters. The police even had gotten authorization from the Pentagon to utilize a grenade launcher from the army. After five hours the Panthers surrendered, all but four of whom were teenagers. Remarkably, only three Panthers and three policeman were injured in the standoff. 39
1969 and 1970 Chicago, Illinois In the two-year span Chicago police killed 59 blacks compared to 19 whites in a city that is two-to-one white to black. So blacks were six times more likely than whites to be killed by police. 39
By 1970 At U.S. military installations in the U.S. and across the globe In just the Marine Corps alone, over one thousand incidents of racial violence had been recorded. Black members of the military became targets of white supremacist groups in the areas around domestic bases and posts. 51
the early 1970's across the US A 1979 pamphlet listed sixty violent confrontations with police for which the Black Liberation Army took credit or were under suspicion for. 39
April 16, 1970 Cambridge, Massachusetts About three thousand students showed up for a rally supporting the New Haven Connecticut Black Panthers. The university locked their gates to keep the protesters out of the campus. Students threw bricks and rocks, lit trash fires, and fought police who returned the violence. Over 200 people were hospitalized with injuries. 39
May 11-12, 1970 Augusta, Georgia On May 9th, Charles Oatman, a sixteen-year-old mentally disabled black boy, was killed while in custody in the Augusta jail. The coroner concluded that the boy had been tortured over several days, with cigarette burns at various stages of healing all over his body. Just six months before this a committee had asked for a federal investigation of the Augusta Police Department. A crowd of 500 that had gathered after news of the boy's death tore down the Georgia state flag which contained the Confederate flag from a city building. They proceeded to throw rocks at motorists, looted, and destroyed about fifty stores, many Chinese-owned. It was contained within one day. But despite its quick end, the Governor, Lester Maddox, had already given orders to raze "any building they're in to its very foundation if necessary to get them out." In the short course of the riot, six black men were shot in the back and killed by police. Eighty others were injuredvand over 200 were arrested. 45
May 14, 1970 New York City, New York The December 4 Movement held a rally at Columbia University in Manhattan. The group had been formed to show solidarity with the Black Panthers after the police killings of Fred Hampton and Mark Clark. After the rally, hundreds of students broke windows around the campus and occupied the business school. They initially promised to occupy the building e university to the Black Panther Party. 39
May 14, 1970 Jackson, Mississippi A protest against racial discrimination became riotous after rumors circulated that Charles Evers and his wife had been killed. Protesters started some fires and overturned a dump truck. When 75 police reinforcements came armed with submachine guns, shotguns, and revolvers students took to taunting them. Officers fired a volley of shots lasting aobut 30 seconds at a women's residence hall leaving twelve students injured, two of whom were killed. Federal investigators believe the police fired over 460 rounds. Only Kent State in Ohio experienced similar levels of violence. Yet, no officers were ever indicted over the incident. 39, 45
July 4-10, 1970 Asbury Park, New Jersey Beginning with some young people breaking windows, the unrest in Asbury Park swelled to multiple nights of rioting in which 167 arrests were made, 165 civilians along with 15 police officers were injured, and $4 million worth of property damage occurred. African-American residents listed numerous demands to city officials trying to redress longtime grievances such as jobs for city youth, and creation of a recreation commission. Citizen peace patrols helped bring the rioting to an end. 45
August 6, 1970 Lima, Ohio The police shot a black woman setting off a riot/urban rebellion. The police and National Guard, using military equipment, then raided the Black Panther Party's National Committee to Combat Fascism office there. 39
October 25, 1970 Detroit, Michigan A riot/urban rebellion of unclear origin led to the surrounding of the Black Panther Party's headquarters with hundreds of police and two tanks. A standoff with the 15 people inside lasted nine hours. Throughout the affected area, one police officer was killed, another wounded, and four police cars were set on fire. 39
July 28, 1973 Dallas, Texas On July 24, twelve-year-old Santos Rodriguez stood firm against attempts by Officer Darrell Cain to get the boy to confess to vandalizing a soda machine. Cain upped the pressure on the boy by having him play Russian roulette which led to the boy being killed. The police fingerprints on the soda machine did not match those of young Santos. On the 28th, a protestof about 2,000 Mexican Americans and blacks marched in downtown Dallas. A woman, falsely, told the crowd that police had killed her son and the crowd began to riot. They beat police officers who were present, burned two police motorcycles, and looted forty stores in just 45 minutes, after which police reinforcements arrived and they calmed the situation. 45
1973 to 1976 Camp Pendleton, California Over 200 racial incidents were cataloged in a local news report that included "kidnapping, shooting, firebombing, torturing, beating, and otherwise harassing black Marines." Active-duty Marines had begun organizing Klan activity on the base in 1973. In November 1976, black Marines rushed into a meeting of white Marines and stabbed six of them. David Duke claimed at the time that the white Marines were Klansmen and that it was a Klan meeting. The New York Times then reported that the Klan on base began having "war councils" and calling for revenge killings. 51
1974 to 1976 Boston, Massachusetts Due to busing and desegregation of Boston's public schools there were fights in hallways and classrooms on an almost daily basis somewhere in the city. Hostile crowds also gathered outside of South Boston High daily until a judicial order prevented it. In September 1975 South Boston High opened its doors with 500 state troopers there, and some remained for the next three years as fights still remained frequent. On January 9, 1975 police rushed to the high school as a fight spilled outside arresting 15 students. On February 12, a fight broke out that continued for the next three days. On May 3rd, 250 students and protesters tried to march to a City Councilwoman's house. She was a leader of the anti-busing cause. The marchers had a skirmish with about 100 local youths who came with baseball bats and hockey sticks that left 8 arrested and at least 10 injured. Fights broke out at Hyde Park High School on May 7th and 8th. On July 27, some out-of-town blacks attempted to swim at Carson Beach in South Boston. Their rental car was destroyed and they had to flee on foot for several blocks. The night before school opened in the fall of 1975, 10,000 people gathered for an anti-busing rally. Later that night about 300 youths battled police near South Boston High. On December 12, anti-busing advocates tried to break into South Boston High and were arrested. On January 21, 1976 1300 students at Hyde Park High were involved in a school-wide fight. On April 5, a black lawyer was attacked by anti-busing students who had just left the city council chamber. On April 20, a 34-year-old white man, Richard Poleet, was beaten brutally by black youths and eventually died. The 1976-1977 school year had some fights occur, but they were a smaller scale than the previous year, and anti-busing resistance was all but done by the end of that year. 45
July 1977 to August 1980 across the US Joseph Paul Franklin, inspired by reading Mein Kampf, went on a racist killing spree across the United States. While he claims to have been the person to have shot Vernon Jordan (for being with a white woman) and Hustler publisher Larry Flynt for displaying interracial sex in the magazine, Franklin was acquitted in the first case and indicted but not convicted in the second. He is known to have killed approximately a dozen other people and wounded more, mostly for being interracial couples, or for just being Jewish or black. He was caught because of his conspicuous racist tattoos and his propensity for visiting blood banks. He was convicted and then eventually executed in Missouri on November 20, 2013. William Pierce, the author of the genocidally racist book The Turner Diaries, also wrote a novel glorifying Franklin's methods entitled Hunter in 1989. He dedicated the book to Franklin stating "he saw his duty as a white man and did what a responsible son of his race must do." 51, 54
1977 to Summer 1982 Camp Puller, Texas Klansman and Vietnam veteran Louis Beam opened Camp Puller and trained about 500 Klansmen and other racists in paramilitary tactics. He also formed a Klan Border Watch group that acted as a Special-Forces-like unit to harass undocumented immigrants. In the Fall of 1980 parental complaints drew attention to Camp Puller as the training facilities had been used to teach high school students about "strangulation, decapitation using a machete, hijacking airplanes, and firing semiautomatic weapons." The camp closed for a short time due to the blowback from this. An undercover reporter who infiltrated the camp heard Beam lecturing, "We'll set up our own state here and announce that all non-whites have 24 hours to leave.... Lots of them won't believe it or won't believe us hen we say we'll get rid of them, so we'll have to exterminate a lot of them the first time around." The Camp was shut down by judicial injunction due to its role in intimidating Vietnamese fisherman in the Galveston Bay area. 51
July 1978 Oxnard, California Trying to shut down a screening of the racist film Birth of a Nation put on by Grand Dragon of the KKK tom Metzger, about 40 members of a Maoist and an antiracist group wielding lead pipes wrapped in newspaper put several police officers in the hospital. Police arrested 13 of them. Another roughly 200-plus demonstrators shouted "Death to the Klan!" One Klansman suffered a broken nose and lost teeth, while three officers and four of the attackers suffered serious injuries. Seven more police officers had minor injuries. 51
August 1978 Kansas City, Missouri More than a dozen leftists busted into a radio station with clubs and pipes to attack neo-Nazi Michael Breda while he was being interviewed. The brief attack caused serious head and shoulder injuries to two radio station employees as well as Breda. Breda claimed a similar incident occurred while being interviewed in Houston, Texas. 51
November 1978 Okolona, Mississippi A group of Klansmen and police attacked a black organization, the United League, who fought back. One Klansmen was killed and five others wounded. 19
1978 Riverside, California A museum that was going to show The Birth of a Nation decided against it due to protests from African-Americans. A local Klan chapter, however, decided to show the movie anyway in a park nearby. Over 200 people showed up with baseball bats and tire irons attacking the Klansmen, who fought back in a battle that lasted five hours. By the time police managed to gain control of the situation, five policeman had to be hospitalized. 45
July 1979 China Grove, North Carolina Members of the Ku Klux Klan and the American Nazi Party arranged a screening of the racist movie Birth of a Nation in a community center in China Grove. The soon-to-be Communist Workers Party organized a rally/march in protest. The roughly 100 party and black community members surounded the community center armed with clubs. The Klan and Nazis had guards on the porch armed with shotguns. Police managed to keep the two heated groups apart. Though no direct violence occurred that day, the Klansmen perceived the event as a direct attack and plotted revenge. They studied video of the eent to know who to target at the Greensboro, North Carolina incident in November of that year. 51
August 1979 Castro Valley, California During a Klan meeting of about 40 members, 30 stone-throwing members of the Committee Against Racism stormed the meeting. The Klan was ready for such an event and had fifteen members prepared with shields and clubs to repel the assault. Sheriff's deputies on hand broke up the skirmish with only one minor injury. 51
August 1979 to Summer 1982 Galveston Bay area, Texas About 25,000 Vietnamese refugees had settled in the larger Houston/Galveston Bay area. For example, in Seadrift, a town of about 1,000 people, they had a sudden influx of about 100 Vietnamese refugees. The Vietnamese fishermen and local fishermen began to clash. In August 1979 a dispute led to the death of a white fisherman in Seadrift, Texas and two Vietnamese fishermen were acquitted on grounds of self-defense. In 1980 after some of the Vietnamese began to obtain US citizenship violence escalated. A Vietnamese fisherman was shot in the leg, shots were fired out in Galveston Bay, two Vietnamese shrimpers were beaten up, others were pelted with beer bottles, and three boats and a mobile home were firebombed. On February 14, 1981 300 to 400 people came to a Klan rally in Santa Fe, Texas where they burned a rowboat named theU.S.S. Viet Cong. In March robed Klansmen cruised the bay on an armed patrol while displaying a lynched Vietnamese fisherman in effigy. Later that spring a young African American judge, Gabrielle McDonald, ruled issued an injunction against any type of gun displays in the Bay, boat burning and a myriad of other intimidation tactics against the Vietnamese. She soon received a threatening letter that included a despicable caricature captioned "Running Nigger Target" and text that endorsed the murder and torture of African Americans.Later, in June 1982, she also issued injunctions that four white supremacist training camps had to close due to their participation in the intimidation of the Vietnamese fishermen and their communities and because they violated state banning private armies. 51
November 3, 1979 Greensboro, North Carolina About 75 Klan members and neo-Nazis attacked an anti-racist rally, named the "Death to the Klan" demonstration, killing five protestors (four white men and one black woman) and wounding eleven. One of the women wounded was Sandi Smith, a black woman who was eight months pregnant at the time. She was peppered with birdshot in the legs. Police did not arrive until after the shooting had finished and twelve Klansmen and neo-Nazis had driven away from the scene. A trial was held for fourteen people on charges of murder, conspiracy, and felony riot. The all-white jury acquitted all of them despite television footage of the violence from three different camera crews. Just days before the rally the Klan had posted flyers of a lynched body in silhouette with a caption that included "It's time for old-fashioned American justice." Confiscated weapons of the Klan there the day of the rally included 2 semiautomatic handguns, an AR-180 semiautomatic rifle, three shotguns and a menagerie of hand-to-hand weapons. A US Dept. of Justice report said that Klan violence had risen 450% in 1979 from the previous year. A second federal trial in 1984 also ended in the defendants walking free. A final civil trial in 1985 found some police who neglected their duties and some of the white supremacist shooters liable for one of the deaths and for two injuries. The City of Greensboro paid the full costs of the settlment including those of the Klansmen and neo-Nazis. 19, 51
1979 Decatur, Alabama Over 100 Klansmen with guns, bats, and ax handles beat civil rights demonstrators, wounding four including the shooting of two in the head and face. A local ordinance passed shortly after banning guns within 1,000 feet of public demonstrations. In 1989 the case was re-opened and four Klansmen were convicted of conspiracy to deprive marchers of their civil rights. Ten Klan members also lost a civil law suit regarding the matter. 45, 51
May 17-19, 1980 Miami, Florida Thirty-three-year-old black insurance executive, Arthur McDuffie, was beaten to death by police officers in Dade County in December of 1979. The following May, all of the officers were found not guilty by an all-white jury. A silent protest march of 5,000 people to the courthouse in downtown Miami followed shortly thereafter, but that night rioting began in the communities of Liberty City, Brownsville, Overtown, and Coconut Grove, which were mostly black and poor. Over $100 million in property damage occurred, over 1,250 were arrested, more than 400 people were injured, and seventeen were killed. The violence began when two white brothers had hit a young black girl with their car in Liberty City. Blacks beat, shot, and stabbed the two brothers with only one of them surviving. Blacks in the area began to target whites and Cubans, killing eight in total on the first day of the riot. Some victims had their ears and tongues severed. For the next two days, white businesses were targeted for damage. 34, 45, 56
September-December 1980 Buffalo-New York City, New York Joseph Christopher killed at least 12 black and Hispanic males on a serial killing spree. He cut the hearts out of two of his victims. 19
1980 San Francisco, California Twelve protesters barged into a movie theater showing The Birth of a Nation, chased out over 100 audience members, and destroyed the film. 45
April 27, 1981 New Orleans, Louisiana Ten US citizens were arrested as they were leaving New Orleans with over thirty guns, over 5,000 rounds of ammunition, ten pounds of dynamite, military manuals, Nazi and Confederate flags, and a neo-Nazi newspaper. They intended to go by boat to a small Caribbean island named Dominica to overthrow its government a plan they called Operation Red Dog. Initially they planned to invade Grenada, but did not believe they had enough manpower to take over that island. They hoped to install a puppet regime in Dominica which would funnel millions of dollars back to the Klan inside of the US. ATF agents joked about the matter as "the Bayou of Pigs."Seven of the men pleaded guilty. Two of the other three were convicted of violating the Neutrality Act, but one 21-year-old successfully used a defense of gullibility despite having been affiliated with the KKKK and the neo-Nazi National Alliance prior to the event. Michael Norris, the 21-year-old, and another of the would-be mercenaries became members of the Order over the next two years. The Order was a white nationalist terrorist group that carried out counterfeiting, armed robbery, and assassinations. 51
December 1982 Miami, Florida Officer Luis Alvarez entered an arcade with an officer whom he was training, and ended up shooting and killing a Nevell Johnson, a young black man. Alvarez claimed he thought he was reaching for a gun. Hundreds of people rioted causing one death, eight injuries, and resulting in 29 arrests. 45
1983-1984 United States The White power movement had been undergoing a massive shift within the United States. Previously, anti-communism was allied very closely with those in the White power movement, so killing communists and defending the US against communist aggression was as paramount in their minds as was their desire for a race war. Gradually, though, they began to see the US government as just as much of an enemy as communist regimes. Nationwide the movement began to call for revolutionary actions such as destabilizing the federal government, creation of a white homeland, and race war as a mechanism of overthrowing the state, often referred to as ZOG, short for Zionist Occupied Government.The Order, a white nationalist terrorist organization wrote an official Declaration of War against the US in December 1984. The movement began to use computer networks to connect and mobilize unseen by government agencies, and to decentralize into leaderless cell units to prevent government infiltration. 51
May 13, 1985 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania The black nationalist group MOVE who had shot a police officer dead in a standoff in 1978, with more injured on both sides, had set up a communal living situation in the neighborhood of Powelton Village. In a second standoff in May 1985, police were engaged in a gun battle with the residents in which they expended from seven to ten thousand rounds of ammunition. The black mayor, Wilson Goode, eventually authorized the dropping of a bomb on the neighborhood killing eleven people, including five children. It also destroyed 61 homes and left about 250 people homeless. The special commission to investigate the incident found that racism strongly affected the Philadelphia PD's actions. The city did no use it firefighting equipment to stop the fires which destroyed the entire block. The city's special investigation later found that the dropping of the bomb was "unconscionable." No police officer was ever fired or fined for this incident, and the city has been ordered to pay over $61 million in damages. 34, 45, 49
1989 U.S. The Southern Poverty Law Center documented 130 cases of move-in violence against those coming into predominately white neighborhoods in just the year of 1989. 52
1989 Bensonhurst (New York City), New York Yusef Hawkins, a 16-year-old African-American, was shot and killed by a group of whites in Bensonhurst on August 23, 1989. Reverend Al Sharpton led protesters during a march in Bensonhurst wheredeath threats were hurled at them. Two people charged with the slaying were acquitted at trial. Further protests ended up in some looting and property damage. 45
1989 Miami, Florida A smaller race riot took place, about the same size as the 1982 event in Miami. 45
April 29, 1992 Los Angeles, California The "Rodney King riots" started, like so many other riots, sparked by police brutality. In this case, it was due to outrage at the acquittal of officers who were videotaped viciously beating Mr. King. Ninety-two-percent of people who had seen the videotape thought that excessive force had been used in King's arrest. All types of racial tensions expressed themselves in these riots. Blacks attacked whites, but also Korean businesses, for example. Over six days, the riot left at least 58 dead, over 2,300 injured and $700 million in property damage, mostly due to fires as over 1,000 buildings were burned. Over 10,000 people were arrested as the National Guard (about 4,000) and federal officers (about 1,700) and troops (about 4,000) had to be called in to restore order. The riot did spread to many other cities as well including San Francisco, Las Vegas, New York City, Seattle, Tampa, and Washington D.C. A commission that had begun investigating the LAPD in 1991 prior to the riots had found that from January 1986 to December 1990, there were over 8,200 complaints by citizens, almost one quarter of which were for excessive force. Economic competition in high unemployment areas, exacerbated by the more than doubling of the Hispanic and Asian populations there also contributed to the increasing racial tensions. Of the first 5,000 people arrested in the riots, 52% were Latino, and only 38% were black. The vicious beating of Reginald Denny, a white truck driver, rightfully struck many as revolting of a sight as the original King beating, though a Latino and an Asian were also beaten on videotape. When the four officers were re-tried in federal court, two were acquitted and two were convicted violating King's civil rights and were sentenced to thirty months in prison. 3, 27, 34, 45
1992 Atlanta, Georgia In one of the more serious offshoots of the "Rodney King" riots about 300 people were arrested. 27
April 19, 1995 Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Timothy McVeigh, with the support of a white power network, and inspired by the violently racist 1974 novel The Turner Diaries, killed 168 people at the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building (167 from the bomb blast itself, and one nurse who died from falling debris during the aftermath). Over 500 other people were injured. Nineteen of the murdered were children. More people died there than in the First Gulf War. It was the "largest deliberate mass casualty on American soil between the bombing of Pearl Harbor and the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001." In 1983 the white power group the Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord had cased the Murrah building and had a plan to blow it up with rocket launchers, but the attempt failed. McVeigh sold The Turner Diaries on the gun show circuit. He had joined a Klan group in North Carolina while in the military, and then was a part of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in 1992 in Arkansas. One woman who met him at a party said he talked a lot about the government and about Hitler having the right plan. When McVeigh moved to Michigan he was part of the Michigan Militia and lived with James Nichols who had long planned on blowing up the Murrah building. Nichols was able to draw freehand a diagram of the building from memory, and according to an informer had been working on a "megabomb" since 1988. McVeigh sent white power literature to his sister. William Pierce, the author of the racist tract The Turner Diaries, promised more violence was to come after the bombing, saying "Terrorism is a nasty business. Most of its victims are innocent people. But terrorism is a form of warfare, and in war most of the victims are non-combatants." 51
1995 to 1996 South Carolina On August 16, 1996 the federal government indicted the Ku Klux Klan with over 70 black church arsons just going back to 1995. 45
July 27, 1996 Atlanta, Georgia Eric Rudolph bombed Atlanta's Centennial Park during the Olympics killing two people and injuring 111. While his animus in subsequent bombings focused on abortion clinics and gay bars, Rudolph had grown up with white separatism writing an essay denying the Holocaust. After the bombings he sought to hide himself in a forested area of North Carolna well-known for being the refuge of white separatist organizations. Rudolph had 4 cache of dynamite hidden around the area where he was finally apprehended. 51
approx. 1997 to 2006 United States Over this decade, about 57 black churches were burned by the Ku Klux Klan. 45
early July 1999 Indiana and Illinois Benjamin Smith, a 21-year-old member of the racist World Church of the Creator, went on a shooting rampage targeting blacks, Jews, and Asians. He killed two people and injured 12 more. He fatally shot himself while trying to elude police. 51, 55
April 10-14, 2001 Cincinatti, Ohio A series of cases of police brutality prefaced the shooting and killing of a black nineteen-year-old, Timothy Thomas, by police officer Steven Roach on April 7, 2001. Tensions boiled over three days later erupting in a riot. Though no one was killed in the rioting, the downtown area suffered major damage (about $3.6 million) and the city's economy suffered even moreso in the aftermath. Thomas had been the fifteenth young black man to die at the hands of Cincinatti police while in a confrontation or while in custody since just 1995, a time period during which no whites had died under similar conditions. On April 14, the day of Thomas' funeral, police fired beanbag bullets into the crowd of 2000 peaceful marchers. In September when Roach was acquitted on all charges, small disorders again broke out. The internal police investigation concluded that Roach had lied on his official report and had not given Thomas adequate time to respond to commands. If Roach had still been with the force he would have been fired, but he had already left and joined a suburban police force. 45