Racial Violence in the United States, 1863 to Present

The Civil Rights Era (1940-1971)

Table III. Other Related Violence in the Civil Rights Era

1= Malcolm X was undoubtedly killed by members of the Nation of Islam. However, the surveillance he was under by the federal government for his support of African-Americans' basic rights make it possible that the government played a role in at least facilitating his death in working with the Nation of Islam. Hoover's FBI was not definitively on the side of the Civil Rights Movement, to put it mildly, throughout the 1950's and 1960's.

2 = She was shot while "allegedly trying to dynamite the home of a Jewish businessman," and was a Ku Klux Klan member. Another Klan member shot a police officer and a bystander during this engagement.

3 = For the purposes of these tables I will not assume that police are either against or for Civil Rights as it most likely varies from case-to-case. Where the context shows that the police were likely acting in concert with anti-Civil Rights groups, the violence will be labeled accordingly, but where there are more murky circumstances they will be viewed neutrally.


1) Free at Last: A History of the Civil Rights Movement and Those Who Died in the Struggle. Edited by Sara Bullard, Julian Bond, J. Richard Cohen, and Steve Fiffer. Published by the Civil Rights Education Project of the The Southern Poverty Law Center. No Date of publication is listed.

2) Sweet Land of Liberty: The Forgotten Struggle for Civil Rights in the North. Thomas J. Sugrue. Random House. 2008.

3) Local People: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Mississippi. John Dittmer. University of Illinois Press. 1995.

4) Carry Me Home Birmingham, Alabama: The Climactic Battle of the Civil Rights Revolution. Diane McWhorter. Touchstone. 2001.

5) Assassination and Political Violence: A Staff Report to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence . Edited by James F. Kirkham, Sheldon Levy, William J. Crotty. Praeger Publishers. 1970.

6) The New South 1945-1980:The Story of the South's Modernization. Numan V. Bartley. Louisiana State University Press. 1995.

7) An American Insurrection: The Battle of Oxford, Mississippi, 1962Doubleday, 2001. William Doyle.

8) Mississippi: The Closed Society. James W. Silver. Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc. 1964.

9) Southern Labor and Black Civil Rights:Organizing Memphis Workers. Michael K. Honey. University of Illinois Press. 1993.

10) http://www.splcenter.org/civil-rights-memorial/civil-rights-martyrs The Southern Poverty Law Center.

11) http://www.splcenter.org/civil-rights-memorial/the-forgotten The Southern Poverty Law Center.

12) http://nuweb9.neu.edu/civilrights/cold-cases/ The Civil Rights and Restorative Justice Project of Northeastern University School of Law.

13) The Attorney General's Fourth Annual Report to Congress Pursuant to the Emmett Till Unsolved Civil Rights Crime Act of 2007. October 2012.

14) St. Augustine Times November 24, 1949

15) http://www.nbbd.com/godo/moore/index.html ; http://www.pbs.org/harrymoore/harry/mbio.html ; http://www.brevardcounty.us/ParksRecreation/North/MooreMemorial/Home

16) Before the Mayflower: A History of the Negro in America, 1619-1964. Lerone Bennett, Jr. Penguin Books. 1966.

17) Race, Reform and Rebellion: The Second Reconstruction in Black America, 1945-1982. Manning Marable. University Press of Mississippi. 1984.

18) Lynching Beyond Dixie: American Mob Violence Outside the South. Edited by Michael J. Pfeifer. University of Illinois Press. 2013.

19) A Social History of Racial Violence. Edited by Allen D. Grimshaw. Transaction Publishers. 2009. (Originally 1969.)

20) Lynching in America: A History in Documents. Edited by Christopher Waldrep. New York University Press. 2006.

21) "'Slangin' Rocks...Palestinian Style': Dispatches from the Occupied Zones of North America" in Police Brutality: An Anthology. Edited by Jill Nelson. W.W. Norton & Co. 2000.

22) "Nation Under Siege: Elijah Muhammad, the FBI, and Police-State Culture in Chicago" in Police Brutality: An Anthology. Edited by Jill Nelson. W.W. Norton & Co. 2000.

23) Slavery by Another Name: The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans fromthe Civil War to World War II. Douglas A. Blackmon. Doubleday. 2008.

24) The Shadow of Slavery: Peonage in the South, 1901-1969. Pete Daniel. University of Illinois Press. 1972.

25) Lynching in North Carolina: A History, 1865-1941. Vann R. Newkirk. McFarland & Company, Inc. 2009.

26) Black Against Empire: The History and Politics of the Black Panther Party. Joshua Bloom and Waldo E. Martin, Jr. University of California Press. 2013.

27) Encyclopedia of American Race Riots. Edited by Walter Rucker and James Nathaniel Upton. Greenwood Press. 2007.